Saturday, August 31, 2019
This chapter describes the methodological analysis used in the current survey that examines the relationship between emotional intelligence ( EI ) and burnout among nurses working in private infirmaries in Malaysia. Specifically, this chapter inside informations the research design selected by the research worker, population and sampling, trying processs, and informations aggregation method.3.2 Research DesignResearch design is a maestro program that specifies the methods and processs for roll uping and analysing informations needed for work outing a job ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Cooper and Schindler ( 2008 ) , research design is the design for aggregation, measuring, and analysis of informations. Sekaran and Bougie ( 2011 ) stated, Ã¢â¬Å" the research design involves a series of rational decision-making picks associating to the intent of the survey, the type of probe, the extent of research worker intervention, the survey scene, the unit of analysis, the clip skyline, the type of sample to be used every bit good as the measuring, informations aggregation methods, trying design, and informations analysis Ã¢â¬ . This survey used hypothetico-deductive method or a quantitative attack, whereby harmonizing to Creswell ( 2005 ) , a hypothetico-deductive method is Ã¢â¬Å" a type of educational research in which the research decides what to analyze, asks specific, narrows inquiries, collects numeral ( numbered ) informations from participants, analyzes these Numberss utilizing statistics, and conducts the enquiry in an indifferent and nonsubjective mode Ã¢â¬ . In short, hypothetico-deductive method is an enquiry into an identified job, based on proving a theory, measured with Numberss and analyzed utilizing statistical techniques. Therefore, the end of hypothetico-deductive method is to find whether the prognostic generalisations of a theory clasp true. This method besides provides a quick, cheap, efficient, and accurate agencies of measuring information about those who are involved in the survey ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . The intent of this survey was hypothesis testing. Based on the account given by Sekaran and Bougie ( 2011 ) , a hypothesis testing is undertaken to explicate the discrepancy in the dependant variable or to foretell organisational results. In this sense, the research worker wanted to cognize the nature of the relationship that may be established between EI and burnout by proving the hypothesis developed. Since the purpose of this survey is to set up a mensurable relationship between EI and burnout, thereby hypothetico-deductive attack is said to be more suited. This method is appropriate to analyze the relationship between variables and to find how much one variable contributes to the anticipation of another ( Creswell, 2005 ; Leedy & A ; Omrod, 2005 ) . Specifically, a hypothetico-deductive study method utilizing a descriptive correlativity design is used to prove the dealingss between all the variables of the survey. The correlativity research design is used when the relationships b etween variables are non considered causal, and where the relationship between two or more variables is determined ( Salkind, 2003 ) . In add-on, hypotheses are developed and tested to depict and explicate the nature of relationship between EI and burnout among the nurses working in private infirmaries. Sekaran and Bougie ( 2011 ) pointed out that the extent of intervention by the research worker with the normal of work in the workplace has a direct bearing on whether the survey undertaken is causal or correlativity. Since the correlational research was used, the survey was conducted in the natural environment of the organisation with minimum intervention by the research worker with the normal flow or work in noncontrieved scenes. In other words, informations were collected from the nurses involved in their workplace. Researcher did non alter any of the scene of their workplace whereby their day-to-day modus operandi occupations were minimally interfered when research was done. Apart from that, the informations were gathered merely one time. Hence, it was a cross-sectional survey. Figure 3.1 below shows the research design for the relevant survey. *diagram3.3 Population and SamplingThe population of research is Ã¢â¬Å" a group of possible participants to whom you want to generalise the consequences of the survey Ã¢â¬ ( Salkind, 2003 ) . Since there are no limited resources such as clip, cost, and human resources, it is non practical and about impossible to study the whole population. On the other manus, trying enables a research worker to garner information rapidly and besides reduces the cost and work force demands for informations aggregation. Sampling besides enables the research worker to do generalisation sing the whole population or parts of the whole population based on a little figure of elements ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . This subdivision discusses the sampling process, including population, unit of analysis, trying frame, trying design, and sample size.3.3.1 Population, Sampling Frame and Unit of AnalysisThe population for the survey consists of the staff nurses employed at three private infirmaries in Klang Valley, Mala ysia. ***3.3.2 Sampling DesignThis research focused on the private infirmaries in Klang Valley. The logic behind choosing the private infirmaries in Klang Valley is that the big and good equipment infirmaries are located in this country and they serve a higher denseness of population. The highest population densenesss are found in Kuala Lumpur, followed by Penang and Putrajaya ( 6,891, 1,490, and 1,478 individuals per square kilometer severally ) for the twelvemonth of 2010 ( Department of Statistics, Malaysia, 2012 ) . **Since the larger private infirmaries are focused in Klang Valley, they have besides higher bed capacity which is assumed to straight interpret to the figure of nurses being hired by these infirmaries. A sum of three private infirmaries in Klang Valley were selected with most of them holding a bed capacity of more than **200. Therefore, it can be assumed that rather a bulk of private infirmary nurses are located in the infirmaries in Klang Valley. Additionally, the elements that constituted as the sample of the research needed to be selected from the population. The procedure of choosing equal figure of elements from a population is called the sampling design. The major types of trying design include chance and non-probability sampling. In chance sampling, every component in the population has some known opportunities of choice whereas in non-probability sampling, the elements Ã¢â¬Ë opportunity of being selected as sample topics is unknown ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . High generalizability of the findings and non being confidently generalizable are two specific features of chance and non-probability sampling severally ( Sekaran & A ; Bougie, 2011 ) . This survey utilised chance trying design to choose the single private infirmary staff nurses. The nurses were selected utilizing simple random trying to enable wider generalizability of the findings.3.3.3 Sample SizeThe determination about sample size is non based on a definite reply bu t depends on a figure of considerations ( Bryman & A ; Bell, 2007 ) . The sample size depends on three factors: ( 1 ) the type of informations analysis ; ( 2 ) the coveted truth of the consequences ; and ( 3 ) the population features ( Neuman, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Sekaran and Bougie ( 2011 ) , the sample size is governed by the extent of preciseness, assurance desired, variableness in population, cost and clip restraint, and the size of population. The sample size should be big plenty to enable research workers to foretell the population parametric quantities within acceptable bounds. In general, two constituents of a good sample are its adequateness and representativeness. Since an optimum sample size besides helps in minimising the entire cost of trying mistake, hence an appropriate sample size must be chosen. Sekaran and Bougie ( 2011 ) stated a tabular array suggested by Krejcie and Morgan ( 1970 ) has greatly simplified the sample size determination to guarantee a good determination theoretical account. Since the population of this survey consist of ****xxx**** private infirmary staff nurses as identified earlier, hence based on the tabular array provided by Krejcie and Morgan, the sample size needed was at least, n=xxxx staff nurses.3.4 Data Collection MethodThis subdivision explains the method used for garnering informations. In this survey, secondary information every bit good as primary informations were involved. Secondary informations referred to the diary articles, public records, text editions, or any other information that were available for readings. From these informations, related countries and a figure of informations aggregation methods were studied and the most applicable 1s were chosen. On the other manus, primary informations resulted from a combination of two different set of questionnaires were developed specifically for each of the countries: EI and burnout. These questionnaires were combined along with the selected demographics variables. This subdivision further describes some advantages of carry oning a study utilizing questionnaires. It besides elaborates on each questionnaire that is used to mensurate the forecaster and standard variable of the current survey.3.4.1 Personally Administered QuestionnairesSurvey research workers collect quantitative and numeral informations utilizing questionnaires ( Creswell, 2005 ) . A questionnaire is Ã¢â¬Å" a pre-formulated written set of inquiries to which respondents record their replies within closely defined options Ã¢â¬ ( Sekaran & A ; Bougie, 2011 ) . Basically, questionnaires enable efficient informations aggregation when the research worker knows precisely what information is needed and how to mensurate the variables of the survey ( Sekaran & A ; Bougie, 2011 ) . Specifically, this survey used personally administered questionnaire studies method for informations aggregation and the instrument of the survey was developed by incorporating the points applied by the old research workers. Harmonizing to Sekaran and Bougie ( 2011 ) , the chief advantages of personally administered questionnaires include: ( 1 ) can set up resonance and motivate respondent ; ( 2 ) uncertainties can be clarified on the topographic point ; ( 3 ) less expensive and consumers less clip than questioning when administered to groups of respondents ; ( 4 ) about 100 % response rate ensured and responses could be collected within a short period of clip ; and ( 5 ) namelessness of respondent is high. To plan a good questionnaire, Sekaran and Bougie ( 2011 ) stated that it is advisable to include some negatively worded inquiries alternatively of give voicing all inquiries positively. Thereby, the inclination in respondents to automatically circle the points towards one terminal of the graduated table is minimized. Nevertheless, in instance this does still go on, the research worker has an chance to observe such prejudice. Hence, both positively and negatively worded inquiries are included in the questionnaire for current research. Apart from that, double-barrelled, equivocal, recall-dependant, prima, and loaded inquiries, every bit good as societal desirableness responses have to be avoided ( Sekaran and Bougie, 2011 ) . The sequence of inquiries should be such that the respondent is led from inquiries of a general nature to those that are more specific, and from inquiries that are comparatively easy to reply to those that are increasingly more hard ( Sekaran and Bougie, 2011 ) . An full research rests on the measuring instruments, which must be dependable, valid, and appropriate for replying the research inquiry of the survey ( Leeky & A ; Ormrod, 2005 ) . The usage of bing instruments ensures the quality of a study inquiries ( Cone & A ; Foster, 1993 ) . Using bing instruments to build a measuring questionnaire adds proved cogency, dependability, truth, and effectivity from past usage ( Creswell, 2005 ) . Therefore, the research worker adapted self-report bing instruments to mensurate all the concepts of the present research. All the self-report steps are discussed in inside informations in the undermentioned subdivisions.188.8.131.52 Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test ( SSEIT )This survey utilized the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test ( SSEIT ) ( Schutte et al. ; 1998 ) to measure the EI of the nurses working in the private infirmaries selected. SSEIT was chosen after consideration of several alternate steps of EI, including point EQ- i ( Bar-On, 1997 ) , the ECI ( Boyatzis, Goleman & A ; Rhee, 2000 ) , and the MSCEIT ( Mayer, Salovey, Caruso & A ; Sitarenios, 2003 ) . These steps were non used because they are proprietary and necessitate considerable clip to administrate. On the other manus, SSEIT provides research worker with the ability to hit the informations, does non imply cost for usage of the instrument, and is less time-consuming for the research participants. The SSEIT which besides referred as the Assessing Emotions Scale is a self-report step that measures EI as defined by Salovey and Mayer ( 1990 ) . Schutte et Al. ( 1998 ) conducted a series of surveies to develop the graduated table and to find its cogency and dependability. A factor analysis of more than 60 points suggested a one-factor solution of 33 points. This one-factor solution resulted in scale points stand foring each of the undermentioned three classs: ( 1 ) assessment and look of emotion in the ego and others ; ( 2 ) ordinance of emotion in the ego and others ; and ( 3 ) use of emotions in work outing jobs. However, the most widely used subscales derived from the 33-item SSEIT graduated table are based on factors identified by Petrides and Furnham ( 2000 ) , Ciarrochi, Chan, and Bajgar ( 2001 ) , and Saklofske, Austin, and Minski ( 2003 ) . These factor analytic surveies suggested a four-factor solution for the 33 points. The four factors are described as: ( 1 ) Percept of Emotion ( 10 points ) ; ( 2 ) Pull offing Own Emotions ( 9 points ) ; ( 3 ) Pull offing Others Ã¢â¬Ë Emotions ( 8 points ) ; and ( 4 ) Use of Emotion ( 6 points ) ( Ciarrochi et al. , 2001 ) . The SSEIT graduated table has been used and validated in several surveies ( Petrides & A ; Furnham, 2000 ; Schutte, Malouff, Bobik, Coston, Greeson, Jedlicka, Rhodes & A ; Wendorf, 2001 ; Schutte, Malouff, Simunek, McKenley & A ; Hollander, 2002 ; Charbonneau & A ; Nocol, 2002 ) . In add-on, an internal consistence analysis with two different samples showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.90 and 0.87 ( Schutte et al. , 1998 ) . The sample points of this instrument include: Ã¢â¬Å" I find it difficult to understand the gestural messages of other people Ã¢â¬ for Perception of Emotion ( PE ) , Ã¢â¬Å" When I am faced with obstructions, I remember times I faced similar obstructions and get the better of them Ã¢â¬ for Pull offing Own Emotions ( ME ) , Ã¢â¬Å" I know when to talk about my personal jobs to others Ã¢â¬ for Pull offing Others Ã¢â¬Ë Emotions ( MOE ) , and Ã¢â¬Å" Some of the major events of my life have led me to re-evaluate what is of import and non of import Ã¢â¬ for Utilization of Emotion ( UE ) . The SSEIT was rated on a 5-point Likert graduated table as in the original instrument with responses runing from 1 ( strongly disagree ) to 5 ( strongly agree ) .184.108.40.206 Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey ( MBI-HSS )Maslach Ã¢â¬Ës Burnout Inventory ( MBI ) is normally used as a research tool in the current literature to mensurate the degree of burnout ( Lee, Ashforth & A ; Bla ke, 1990 ; Kanste, Miettunen & A ; Kyngas, 2006 ; Wu, Zhu, Wang, Wang & A ; Lan, 2007 ) . This survey measured nurse burnout utilizing the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey, 3rd edition ( MBI-HSS ) ( Maslach et al. , 1996 ) . MBI-HSS steps burnout among employees in human services establishments and wellness attention businesss such as nursing, societal work, psychological science, and ministry in footings of: ( 1 ) Emotional Exhaustion ( 9 points ) ; ( 2 ) Depersonalization ( 5 points ) ; and ( 3 ) Personal Accomplishment ( 8 points ) . The MBI-HSS has sound psychometric belongingss to guarantee dependability and cogency. MBI has demonstrated to hold concept cogency through the analysis of informations from a innovator instrument of 47 points administered to human service forces ( Maslach & A ; Jackson, 1981a ) . Convergent cogency surveies indicate the MBI-HSS graduated tables measure the same concept as other burnout instruments. Correlations of emotional exh austion and depersonalisation with other burnout self-report indexs are high ( rs & gt ; .50 ) , where as correlativities with personal achievement are slightly lower ( rs & gt ; .30 ) ( Schaufeli & A ; Enzmann, 1998 ) . Maslach et Al. ( 1996 ) reported internal consistence of MBI with dependability coefficients as follows: IÃ ± = .90 for emotional exhaustion ( EE ) , IÃ ± = .79 for depersonalisation ( DP ) , and IÃ ± = .71 for decreased personal achievement ( PA ) . Furthermore, the test-retest dependability ranged from moderate to high. The test-retest dependability coefficients were as follows: EE ( .82 ) , DP ( .62 ) , and PA ( .80 ) . Sample points from Emotional Exhaustion ( EE ) subscale include: Ã¢â¬Å" I feel emotionally drained from my work. Ã¢â¬ Sample points from Depersonalization ( DP ) subscale include: Ã¢â¬Å" I feel I treat some patients as if they were impersonal objects. Ã¢â¬ Sample points from Personal Accomplishment ( PA ) subscale include: Ã¢â¬Å" I can easy understand how my patients feel about things. Ã¢â¬ Basically, nurse burnout was measured based on statements that concern feelings or attitudes about one Ã¢â¬Ës work and how frequently those feelings occur. The frequence with which the nurses experience each point was measured on a 5-point Likert Scale anchored by Never ( 1 ) and Everyday ( 5 ) .220.127.116.11 Demographic DataIt is a affair of pick for the research worker whether inquiries seeking personal information of respondents should look at the beginning or at the terminal of the questionnaire ( Sekaran & A ; Bougie, 2011 ) . Harmonizing to Oppenheim ( 1986 ) , some research workers ask for personal informations at the terminal instead than the beginning of the questionnaire. Their logical thinking may be that by the clip the respondent reaches the terminal of the questionnaire, he or she has been convinced of the legitimacy and genuineness of the inquiries framed by the research worker and, therefore, is more inclined and conformable to portion personal information ( Sekaran & A ; Bougie, 2011 ) . On the other manus, research workers who prefer to arouse most of the personal information at the really beginning may speak up that one time respondents have shared some of their personal history, they may hold psychologically identified themselves with the questionnaire, and may experience a committedness to react ( Sekaran & A ; Bougie, 2011 ) . Both these methods of seeking personal information have their pros and cons. For current survey, demographic information of the respondents were requested on the last subdivision of the questionnaire. This portion includes demographic information such as age, gender, cultural group, matrimonial position, old ages of work experience, making, nursing class, and section. The respondents were required to click the appropriate replies. The study questionnaire can be found in Appendix A. The two chief instruments selected for this survey have shown concept cogency and dependability based on old surveies but they have non been tested in the Malayan context. Therefore, the dependabilities of all the instruments and content cogency were tested during the pre-test. The sum-up of the questionnaire with the dislocation of subdivisions and the description of each of the survey instruments is shown in Table 3.1.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Introduction. When a subject reads and add in a magazine, what is it that drives that person to go out and purchase the product the add depicts? What even makes a subject willing to spend more time looking at the add? It is at this point where the art of persuasion does itÃ¢â¬â¢s best work. Definitions. The Elaboration Likelihood Model claims that there are two paths to persuasion: the central path and the peripheral path. (lecture 2/20/03) The central path is most widely used when the receiver is motivated to think about the. If the person cares about the issue and has access to the message with minimum distractions, then that person will elaborate on the message. (lecture, 2/20/03). If the message is ambiguous but attitudinally neutral (with respect to the receiver) or if the receiver is unable or not motivated to listen to the message then the receiver will look for an easier way to interpret it. This leads to the peripheral route. Peripheral cues include such strategies as trying to associate the advocated position with things the receiver already thinks positively towards (e.g., beauty, money, sex).(lecture, 2/20/03) If the peripheral cue association is accepted here, then there may be a temporary attitude change and possibly future elaboration. Peripheral Route. The first advertisement that was chosen, from GentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢s Quarterly magazine, depicts a very attractive man standing in front of a bottle of cologne. The advertisement is for Polo, a brand notoriously associated with affluence, and prestige. This add illustrates the advertisers wish to catch the eye of the consumer as they are flipping the pages of the magazine using a method other then their product.. The argument in this case is weak. Polo is trying to depict that if a subject uses their new cologne, it is possible for them have a lifestyle like the model pictured. Most cologne adds, have a tab that you can open up on the same page and smell the cologne, that would cause one to elaborate on the add. This one does not, therefore, Polo was trying to get the consumer attention to a fragrance, using a beautiful person. This is clearly an example of persuasion using peripheral cues. The average age of a subject that would likely be persuaded by this add, would b e middle to late twenties, the age in which people are attempting to attain affluence. Central Route. The second advertisement that was chosen, from Sports Illustrated, is an add put out by Mercedes Benz to promote their new line of SUVÃ¢â¬â¢s, the M-Class.. It is very clear that Mercedes in this case was trying to promote the security aspect of their SUVÃ¢â¬â¢s. When a consumer sees this add, it is apparent that the central route will be used, because there is no greater motivation for thinking, then the safety of family. The ad would definatly cause the consumer to elaborate, and think about how safe the car that one is currently driving in, is. Thus, the add has done itÃ¢â¬â¢s job in attracting a consumer. One specific characteristic of the add that makes it persuasive, are the g-dÃ¢â¬â¢s in the clouds attempting to disrupt the path of the truck, as it seems to effortlessly keep on going. This clever use of history depicts that nothing can hurt those once inside this vehicle, not even g-dÃ¢â¬â¢s. The type of person that would most likely be persuaded by th is add would be a young father (28yrs.-40yrs.)who is in the market for a new car. This add is affective cause it gets a subject thinking, thus using the central route Conclusion. The way that consumers read and respond to advertisements as shown in this paper, is crucial to promoting a product. Whether a company uses the central or peripheral routes, to attract consumer interest, can make a huge different in sales of that product. The advertising industry is a multi-billion dollars business,(GQ, December 2002) in which creative minds develop new ideas in the art of persuasion for the next generations.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
In this essay I wish to portray the value of music firstly to me and then to people I have asked and also what different styles of music do for them and my self and I will also ask what is the nature of the music that they like and how it affects them on a day to day basis and the question I will ask them is what music means to them and what values does it hold. I will ask 10 people and use there answers to write this essay. I would like to start by saying that all people in this essay were asked prior to writing about them and that I am not using any of the people's real names for confidentiality. I value music very much as I have always played and listened to various styles of music. On my shelf at home I have different styles of music ranging from classical to R n B to rock. So I feel I have a wide taste in music. I have also played many different styles on my 3 main instruments as I play clarinet I have played classical and jazz on that. I also play bass guitar and I have played blues, rock n roll, heavy rock etc. on that and I am a drummer and I have played samba, rock, funk, jazz and many other styles of music. I enjoy playing all of these as I find it helps me to relax and control my emotions as I let my emotion out in the style of music I play, music is an age old way of expressing emotions through sound right back from the cave man days to the times of Jesus and the Tudors and Victorians right through to today's music. The most popular style changes from generation to generation but we would still call it Ã¢â¬Å"popÃ¢â¬ music as that's what is popular at the time. Their for the nature of the music I choose to play is one of my emotions thus giving the listener (if any) the sense that I am happy or sad or excited for example, if I played some twelve bar blues on my bass it would probably remind you of sadness or the slave trade that would up set you but if I played some funk it would probably lift your emotions to make you happy like a major or minor chord has that effect different styles of music also have that effect. Other people I asked gave me different responses. One guy said that he only values his own style of music and that all other music has no value. This person is defiantly close minded about the type of music he likes and that all other music is I quote Ã¢â¬Å"crapÃ¢â¬ and that the nature of his music was the way of life. Looking at the way the guy was dressed I think he listened to hardcore rock music and that he was a bit gothic (I say a bit I actually mean a lot) I also got told by some people that they find the nature of some music unsuitable for children as x-rated lyrics stop younger children listening to it. I agree with this as music is for everyone not just the over 18's so music that includes x rated lyrics should not be aloud to be produced, and of the 10 people I have spoken two 8 agree with me. In the nature of music i would say that on a day to day basis I listen to approximately 4 Ã¢â¬â 5 hours of different styles of music. And with my choice of track my mood changes and so does the quality of the work I am doing at the time. For example I am currently listening to some drum and bass. So I am typing quite fast and my mood is bouncy, But if I was to listen to some more relaxing music such as some r n b or some blues music the speed I type would slow down and the mood I am in would drop from being quite happy to a bit down and lazy feeling so I would probably take a break from my work. I asked the same 10 people how they use music in the nature of their life. Below are some of the responses I received 1) I use music at work because it helps me through the day 2) I don't use music in my life (to which I replied not even in the shower when your humming or whistling a song the response I got is repeatable) 3) I study music as a degree so it is in my life Ã¢â¬Å"big timeÃ¢â¬ 4) I listen to music in the morning in my car 5) Er,,,,,,, music you mean like heavy rock (this person was a bit dence) These responses were my favourite as it shows what different peoples views are on music. Overall I think that the value and nature of music affects everyone is completely different and the question I am asking is does different styles of music affect the way you behave in society?
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Constructivism and Teaching English Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words
Constructivism and Teaching English - Assignment Example Although constructivism might provide a model of knowing and learning that has important implications for classroom practices, it does not translate neatly into a set of pedagogical practices. The implementation of the constructivist approach is still worth discussion and clarification. This paper will highlight challenges associated with implementing constructivism in teaching English to speakers of other languages. Much writing has been done about theories of constructivism and the connection to superior learning results; however, there is no "consolidated" discussion of the foundations, results, and practical issues of constructivism. According to Marlowe and Page (1998), even when teachers recognise the value of and want to use constructivist approaches in their classrooms, their efforts often produce less than what they expected. There have been attempts to make constructivism operational so that classroom teachers can more rapidly apply constructivist theory to practice. The pr oblem is that the application of constructivism in classrooms is "neither widespread nor systematic". Constructivist propositions can seem fairly simple but hundreds of observations of and questions from pre-service and inÃ ¬ service teachers over the past 10 years show that they are not. Teachers and administrators who already work with constructivist reform initiatives need guidelines to help with the implementation. Moreover, development of a constructivist view of learning as a basis for instruction implies fundamental changes.
Moral Stages of Development - Essay Example Interspersed throughout these critical learning levels are seven different stages of understanding in which the child slowly progresses from one level to the next. Kohlberg defines the first level of moral development as that time when a child is very impressionable to rules and standards of behavior, but only to the extent that he or she will act a certain way to avoid physical punishment or gain physical rewards (treats, etc.). Level Two moral development involves both conformity and loyalty to social norms, according to Kohlberg, and this is the level that parents and educators strive to instill in their children. In this stage, laws and societal rules are accepted and understand as being put in place for the good of the nation or group. In contrast, Level Three, also called the Autonomous Level, sees an individual making judgment choices based not only on societal expectations and laws but on his or her own personal ethical code, which has developed throughout the years (Kohlberg 1971). According to Miller, Van Esterik and Van Esterik, the concept of childhood itself has only been in use for a few hundred years (2001); this relative newness gives researchers few concrete ideologies when it comes to understanding the moral development of a young person in school. Kottak agrees that the role of the classroom and the effects of a changing world are constantly creating new issues with students; he feels that in particular, television has a great role to play in the gender development of students everywhere. Kottak notes that in a few short decades as television became omnipresent, students began treating their teachers and their peers with what he regards as less respect and simply less attention. Instead of learning their place in society from their teachers and their parents, they are also learning it from movies and TV programs; in fact these very programs have a direct effect on the gender bias in classrooms (Kottak 2000). Where parents and even teachers might tend to avoid actually discussing the issue of gender bias in the classroom and the wider world, television opens up the topic for discussion and children are learning early on about their history as a sex and making decisions about their future in this respect. Conclusion Kohlberg's levels of moral development can be directly implemented by teachers in early learning situations most effectively; the more time left before instilling basic social expectations, the more difficult it is to instill them at all. As children in level one are the most susceptible to learning fresh concepts, it is best that teachers of younger children do their best to address issues of gender bias in such a way as to bring the children forward into a new reality, instead of merely teaching them about what already exists. Perhaps this is the most crucial aspect of level one learning: instead of showing children the things that need changing and hoping they will decide to take a stand in the future, teach them about their role in a more perfected society, where the genders are truly
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Competitive Advantage at Louis Vuitton and Gucci - Case Study Example This research is the best example of comparison of two brands. Both LVMH and Gucci host a number of luxurious brands which have their own individuality in terms of designing, inbound and outbound logistics, marketing and value to these companies. The most important success factor for these companies has been the valuable brands they serve. These brands have a long established history for delivering products which have been appreciated and accepted as the source of luxury. By luxury we mean products or services which have high economic value and have a limited market of the richest and elites. Both companies have cultivated strong marketing tools to ensure that their brands remain active in the market and are not renounced at any times. Furthermore, their presence and major fashion shows in major cities including New York, Paris, Milan, London, Singapore and Berlin creates a real impact for these companies. The overall impact of rejuvenating brand is increasing demand for prestigious products even at higher prices than market average. The second most important success factor is that these companies have constantly engaged in the process of evolving. From just being single business line entities they have not been hesitant to explore opportunities available in the market. This is mainly due to the inspirations and charisma of the groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ creative directors who had long term vision for making their brands as household name. The companies have grown as conglomerate of brands with product lines in different market segments however keeping in view the value in terms of the extravagance and luxury for their users. The companies have been able to differentiate from their competitors in many ways. Most importantly is that these companies have kept a unique culture and control over the use of their brands. They have not allowed excessive franchising and licensing of their brand which would dilute their brands as experienced by some of the leading fashion brands su ch as Pierre Cardin which lost its presence in the luxury market because of the overuse of the brand in 1980s for over 800 products (Lynch, 2005). The consideration of the companies' value chains indicate that both companies aim to work with controlled suppliers
Monday, August 26, 2019
XMGT Checkpoint Wk2 - Essay Example This essay stresses that the main, crucial commonality of these values is that the standards of conduct that arise out of these values constitute the ground rules of ethics. It is through this commonality that the element of decision making is easily taken. Further more, these five values have a commonality in that all of them act as a multi-level filter through which decisions are processed. For example, being trustworthy needs to be complemented with the virtue of being caring. Equally, affirming to fairness/justice needs to be complemented by the state of accepting responsibility for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions or inaction. Above all, the five values help individuals detect situations, which help them uphold their moral principles in life. This article has a personal view. Some of the author's organization values include honesty, integrity, reliability, dependability, attention to work, and cooperation. Honesty is being able to speak facts. Integrity is that quality of upholding high morals principles. Reliability talks of the ability of being able to be Ã¢â¬Ërelied onÃ¢â¬â¢. Dependability is someone who is dependable especially when it comes to tasks. These are the five crucial values that I have taken into consideration as per the ethics required. However, there are no major differences between organization values and my personal values since they correlate in some of the areas. This is true because when ethical scandals hit in an organization, it emerges that certain individuals in the organization have allowed their own personal values to interfere and infect the organization.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Discussion 9 - Essay Example Aside from time, I think that the type of problem being addressed by the decision-making process is also determinative. When the problem addressed is broad and involves several units in the organizational structure, or when the problem involves profound policy formulation and implementation that will be applied in the long term, then decision-making is preferable. The resultant decision shall be implemented by a large part of the organization, therefore: (1) the feedback concerning possible repercussions in their respective areas must be considered; and (2) their cooperation must be engendered to make the long-term adjustments among and between the units successful. An example of this is the merging of a new acquisition into the existing structure of the surviving organization. On the other hand, if the decision is constrained by the circumstances such that negotiations among the units cannot be accommodated, or if the problem addressed is localized or requires moderate adjustments, then command decisions are best. An example is the order by the parent firm for a subsidiary to implement a global marketing strategy. Reference: Mezey, G (2004) Crisis management decision making. Atlantic Association for Research in the Mathematical Sciences (AARMS), 3(2): 267-288 2. Consider your work environment and responsibilities.Ã How do you avoid the problem of "bounded awareness" in the decisions you make at work? Bounded awareness is defined by Chugh and Bazerman (2004) as Ã¢â¬Ëan individualÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to Ã¢â¬Å"seeÃ¢â¬ and use accessible and perceivable information while Ã¢â¬Å"seeingÃ¢â¬ and using other equally accessible and perceivable informationÃ¢â¬â¢ (p. 2). Some people would call this Ã¢â¬Ëtunnel visionÃ¢â¬â¢ in the figurative sense, in so far as the person focuses on certain details or elements to the exclusion of other equally important, or even more important aspects. A person may be predisposed to looking only at select details for many r easons, such as a mental fixation or mindset, prejudicial presumptions, or lack of education or training in recognizing or appreciating what is important in a certain situation. In my own work environment, there is a tendency for medical representatives like myself to be fixated on our own particular product line-up, regular clientele, or the service area we are assigned to that we do not see how a specific decision or regulation could affect other product offerings, other clients, and other service areas. A new supervisor promoted from one of the subordinate units is often seen to exhibit a keen understanding of the circumstances of the unit he/she came from but a lack of understanding concerning other units now under his leadership. The best way one may avoid bounded awareness is of course forming a decision or advisory team to discuss and analyze the various facets of a problem and arrive at alternative recommendations before the final decision is made. There are many considerati ons that may not be apparent to an individual decision-maker because his attention is circumscribed by the aspects of management he/she is experienced in. In due time and with practice, bounded awareness may be addressed by developing a wider perspective of the
Saturday, August 24, 2019
International Law Questions - Assignment Example The Australian and New Zealand markets permit competition in their markets. Being new target markets for business, there are various market strategies that would assist the firm in penetrating the markets. Franchising, which involves selling rights of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s business model to local affiliated firms is an appropriate method. The corporation sells the rights of distribution to local Australian firms. The other market entry strategies apt for these markets include joint ventures, Greenfield projects and exportation.Zimbabwe and Cuba markets are different from the aforementioned markets because of their corruption. Foreign firms, before entry, have to bribe government officials despite the market entry strategy adopted by the firm. The bribes facilitate faster processing of legal and business documents and the required licenses for operation in these markets. Without bribes, the firm will enter these markets after a prolonged time. The World Trade Organization stands out as a treaty because it promotes more free trade amongst its members. By promoting international trade, the treaty encourages member states to increase their individual output through specialization. The main objective of this treaty is to promote peace amongst member states during the trading process. Trading amongst individuals usually leads to disputes and the WTO seeks to avoid these disputes by enabling smooth flowing trade. TRIPS, on the other hand, is a treaty that deals with intellectual properties.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Project management - Essay Example ________________________ helped me throughout the session and due to him, I become able to submit my work on time. Here I want to thanks my parents as well for all their prayers and support. By, Department of Project Management, Faculty of Management Sciences _____________________________________________ Dated: 15-04-2012 Contents Introduction 5 Main Body 6 Pert Technique: A Complete Overview 6 Conclusion 12 Bibliography 13 Introduction According to large number of professionals and corporate analysts, organisation has been referred to a place in which hundreds of people work together for the achievement of a specific goal. This is an obvious fact that, every organisation has the same perspective in its mind which is to broaden the net income recognition (Borodovsky & Gogarten, 2010, pp 25). The leniency of the organisations towards its bottom line and external shareholders is one of the main things for the organisational productivity and efficiency (Borodovsky & Gogarten, 2010, pp 4 6). The real dominance of an organisation lies in the fact that how well it uses its natural and human capital for the long run productivity and efficiency of the entity. Strategies are at the heart of an organisation and no organisation can sustain completely in this competitive environment without employing strategies. It is more than important for an organisation to timely check and measures its operational strategies to cope up with all sorts of challenges which the company may encounter during its operations (Borodovsky & Gogarten, 2010, pp 35). Organisation is basically a set of departments that collectively works for the long run efficiency of the company and inevitably, no organisation can sustain without the ad hoc working of its different departments (Borodovsky & Gogarten, 2010, pp 37) Finance department plays a decisive role in the productivity of an organization. Organizations always want to fly high with the help of high income generation (Borodovsky & Gogarten, 2010, PP. 49). Project Management and Project Evaluation is extremely important from the standpoint of an organization and there are numerous benefits attached with the same. The main perspective of this assignment is to pen down about the concept of PERT in Project Management. Main Body Pert Technique: A Complete Overview Project management is the discipline of forecast, organizing, securing and running property to convey about the successful completion of feature engineering cast goals and objectives (Ackerman, 2002, PP. 65). It is sometimes conflated with list management, however technically that is actually a superior intensity construction: a group of connected and somehow interdependent engineering projects. A foresee is an acting work, having a clear start and end (usually constrained by court, but can be by funding or deliverables), undertaken to assemble matchless goals and objectives, usually to earn about beneficial change or added regard The Project Management Instituted, an i nternational association for the predict management profession, has destroyed pitch management into the following areas of wisdom: Integration, Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Human Resources, Communications, Risk, and Procurement Management. Each phase is precisely managed to establish a successful propel outcome, although the smooth of portion essential for each outlook varies according to the mass and precise objectives of the project. The primary
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Students and Politics Essay The student community, being young and energetic, are a bundle of inflammablematerial, which at the touch of a spark ignites into a large uncontrollable fire like forestfire. They, being young have no patience, are lively and malleable. In India, the trend of students actively participating in politics began in the early 20thcentury, when India was fighting for its freedom. The elders being busy with their breadearning, they actively encouraged the youngsters to enter the arena of politics. Besides,they were young and would be easily enthused to join the mass movement at the drop of a hat. Political parties at that time started enlisting the support of the young students whoorganized themselves happily, to help one party or the other. This trend started in theearly years of 20th century and continued and even expanded up to date. However, once independence was won, it was to be reconsidered if students should beallowed or couraged to enter politics. Some sections of society now started believing thatstudents should stay away from politics and keep to their study schedules only. While thesociety kept debating on this issue, the politician took the younger generation as their work cum energy tanks and this participation of students in politics has come to stay. The present scenario in India is thus a keen struggle of political parties engaged inenlisting support of students. This obviously results in the students getting sharplydivided as if they were of this political party or that so much so, even the campuselections become tainted with a touch of politics. There is of course nothing without advantages and disadvantages, so does thisinvolvement of students in politics. There are both serious disadvantages and may be fewadvantages too of students being on the centre stage of politics. Disadvantages outnumber the advantages. Firstly, while the students, have primarily entered college for studies theyget distracted from their prime objective and become entangled in the dirty game of politics. The energy and time they use or waster in masterminding political moves, couldwell be used to study. This entry of politics in the premises of educational institutions hascaused many a damage to several students. Students have got rusticated owing to their active participation in politics, thus losing their hold on studies. Politics teaches studentsto put an end to all rules and regulations and become rowdy and violent. This leads to closure of institutions which again take a toll of students study time. Thevery innocent and loving appearance of children gets lost and they become rude, arrogantand disobedient. When there is too much of hooliganism entering into educationalinstitutions, even police is to be called sometimes and there is utter disorder in thecampus and even bullets find their way among the students. The disadvantages of students entering politics are numerous and destructive. When we study the advantages of this system, they do exist but, are very few and hardlysignificant. Children entering the arena of politics learn the art of public speaking. Theylearn to be assertive and impressive. This medium is a good stepping stone to the art of leadership. The important and real advantage is that students in these prime years of life gain a lot of knowledge of politics which gives them training to enter the arena as trained politicians. After studying the pros and cons of students participation in politics, the disadvantagesare more damaging than the gains acquired in the sequence. For, all the advantagesstudents gain, can as well be achieved so in other ways also and there is no need for their entry into politics. Students must stay away from politics and retain their interest in studies which alone canhelp them steer the ships of their lives. The most progressive, articulate, inspired and dynamic segment of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢spopulation is the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s community. The formative period of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s lifeshould be utilized for an all round balanced development of his/her personality. Political experience constitutes an essential part of this learning experience. Thisperiod prepares one to face the challenges better and enables one to succeed inlife. The much hyped dirty murky nature not with standing. Politics has the potentialto inculcate qualities like general awareness, keeping abreast with current happenings and above all leadership qualities in an individual. StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s who joinpolitics are good orators. They become assertive by shedding their timid nessand shyness. Tackling problems and solving disputes and handling crisissituations however small or big they may be, infuses confidence in them. It helpsin developing skills to deal with people from all backgrounds and of all shades of opinion. Moreover, politics cannot be divorced from a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life as he continuouslyinteracts with the StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Union and various other student associations incollege. Students also have a great deal of exposure to mediums like the press,television, cinema, etc. hich are important agents of political expression. Political science is a vital part of the syllabi both at the school and college level. This underlines the role that politics plays in various stages of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Hence, it is futile to shut out students from politics. History is replete with examples of students playing a vital role in over-throwingcorrupt dictatorial regimes, freeing their people from foreign yoke and launchingrelentless crusades against social injustice and exploitation. Majority of the greatleaders entered politics during their student life. Therefore, political education or training during student life is important for success in life. Many studentsÃ¢â¬â¢organizations like all Manipur students union (AMSU) are big and powerfulstudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ organizations in the north eastern part of India. Their clout is so greatthat they could even go against the general peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s verdict. Where politiciansfail, they succeed easily. The power of the youth is a mighty river, waiting to bechannelized. The politics of a particular system determines whether this happensin a constructive or destructive manner. However, there is a limit to the extent of a studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement so that abalanced participation does not affect his main purpose, which is to study. Whilehe is not expected to remain passive in the face of criminalization of politics,dismantling of democratic organizations, corruption, communalism and casteism,he should not indulge in factional or partisan politics, or give into the unjustdirections of senior party leaders. The student wing should herald the new, onlythen do they deserve to be called the promise of tomorrow. A better tomorrow.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Hamlet Theme Analysis Essay In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy Hamlet, the title characterÃ¢â¬â¢s logical soliloquies, and over thinking of situations inhibit his abilities to act on his passions. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s safe to say that Hamlet was a logical and reasonable person right from the start. In the society he was raised in most actions carried out through passion were considered taboo. Take jealousy, lust and vengeance for example; in the play all of these passions are put into satisfying action by the people surrounding Hamlet. Everyone but Hamlet makes a move based on emotion; Claudius murdered his brother for his crown, Gertrude quickly married Claudius, and Laertes takes revenge on Hamlet. The prince, instead, takes the path of thought and only allows himself to do what he makes himself believe is the most logical. In the beginning Hamlet is distressed. He feels no compassion for his new stepfather considering him Ã¢â¬Å"a little more than kin and less than kindÃ¢â¬ (I.ii.67), as Claudius is not a replacement for his father and Hamlet refuses to accept that. He most definitely does not stand for Claudius referring to him as Ã¢â¬Ëson.Ã¢â¬â¢ His relationship with his mother isnÃ¢â¬â¢t any better. Hamlet feels a strong resentment toward this whole marriage business and expresses his displeasure through riddles in court. Ã¢â¬Å"Ay, madam,Ã¢â¬ he says disdainfully toward his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s insistence that he stop mourning and that death is a common occurrence, Ã¢â¬Å"it is commonÃ¢â¬ (I.ii 76). In HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes she has betrayed his father by marrying so soon, in fact by re-marrying at all; especially to Claudius, the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s brother. Claudius attempts to make it look like everyone is friends in the eyes of the court by trying to sympathize with Hamlet but ends up just telling him to suck it up and deal with his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death like a man. Ã¢â¬Å"Take it to heart? Fie! Ã¢â¬Ëtis a fault to heaven/A fault against the dead, a fault to natureÃ¢â¬ (I.ii 104). HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s mourning is not natural to his family much as their marriage is not natural to him. So when his new daddy dearest refuses to let him out of the country to go back to school Hamlet feels even more out of place because now, he canÃ¢â¬â¢t escape. In every soliloquy we hear from Hamlet there is talk of suicide. The most obvious of all, Ã¢â¬Å"to be or not to be, that is the question:Ã¢â¬ (III.i.63) Or earlier mention of self harm after the coronation of the new king. Ã¢â¬Å"Or that the Everlasting had not fixÃ¢â¬â¢d/His canon Ã¢â¬Ëgainst self-slaughterÃ¢â¬ (I.ii.134). However, Hamlet is a logical guy and he knows suicide would cause a big mess and besides, in the first soliloquy it is evident that Hamlet would rather be anywhere but Denmark, even the grave but he finds there are better things to be ranting about; like his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s remarriage. Ã¢â¬Å"O God! a beast that wants discourse of reason/Would have mournÃ¢â¬â¢d longermarried with my uncle,/My fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, but no more like my father/Than I to HerculesÃ¢â¬ (I.ii.154). Hamlet canÃ¢â¬â¢t find a single good thing to come out of this union and his opinion of his mother has been flipped onto its head. So he deals with an internal conflict; Ã¢â¬Å"But break, my heart, for I must hold my tongue!Ã¢â¬ (I.ii.162), he canÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly go around telling everyone that his mother is a whore. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s the queen and he the prince, it would be more trouble than itÃ¢â¬â¢s worth to go about making accusations especially since Claudius made it clear that he was weird for mou rning for so long. So, onward goes HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s little self/Claudius loathing party. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s trusted friend Horatio tells him some very interesting news. Horatio tells Hamlet that his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost had been spotted in the courtyards and that it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t answer to anyone no matter what. Horatio believes that our young prince must see what this ghost has to offer. Hamlet is excited to say the least when the ghost appears Ã¢â¬Å"That I will speak to thee. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll call thee Hamlet,/King, father, royal Dane. O answer me!Ã¢â¬ (I.iv. 47). He follows the ghost and the ghost tells Hamlet that he was murdered by Claudius and that Hamlet must avenge him. He isnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure what to make of this ghost at first, how can Hamlet be absolutely positive the ghost isnÃ¢â¬â¢t lying or tricking him? After all, murder is a big order, he canÃ¢â¬â¢t dive head first into that pool of accusations without verification. Hamlet decides he will Ã¢â¬ËactÃ¢â¬â¢ mad so to not draw attention to his plans to kill Claudius. This works for a while, no one suspects he knows of ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ deed, not even Claudius himself. He definitely wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t suspect the prince to come into his chambers and catch him while praying; which is exactly what happens. Hamlet is given his prey on a silver platter and decides against it. Ã¢â¬Å"Now might I do it pat, now he is praying;and now IÃ¢â¬â¢ll doÃ¢â¬â¢t. And so he goes to heavenÃ¢â¬ (III.iii.76). A reasonable explanation as to why Hamlet didnÃ¢â¬â¢t kill Claudius is because he was scared. He was afraid to act on his passions thus, his mind gave him a reason not to do it; if he killed Claudius while the man repented, his soul would be unfailingly sent to heaven. However, this is not the case Ã¢â¬Å"That cannot be; since I am still possessÃ¢â¬â¢d/of those effects for which I did the murderÃ¢â¬ (III.iii.55). Claudius does not regret his decision, nor would he leave what he had gained through murder even for heaven. This hesitation revealed that Hamlet does not kill Claudius in the most logical and perfect time to do so because his passions had muddied his ability to think clearly. And so he continues with his Ã¢â¬ËmadÃ¢â¬â¢ facade. Everyone has noticed the princeÃ¢â¬â¢s new attitude and his mother grows worried for his sanity. Ã¢â¬Å"Hamlet, thou hast thy father much offendedÃ¢â¬ (III.iv.9) If there is anything Ã¢â¬ËcrazyÃ¢â¬â¢ Hamlet has latched onto as a vehicle upon which to launch his insanity, it is any mention of his late father. Especially mention that he has somehow failed his father. The queen claims that HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior has upset his father and shamed the family. But quick and clever Hamlet simply quips Ã¢â¬Å"Mother you have my father much offendedÃ¢â¬ (III.iv.10). Gertrude is appalled by her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and wants him to stop, but bringing up the late King Hamlet wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the best way to go around that. As IÃ¢â¬â¢ve said, Hamlet is using any mention of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death to flip the tables around and around and drive any serious conversation off course with puns and quips of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s hasty remarriage. Ã¢â¬Å"Come, come, you answer with an idle tongueÃ¢â¬ (III.iv.11). Ã¢â¬Å"Go, go you question with a wicked tongueÃ¢â¬ (III.iv.12). At one point during the conversation between mother and son it is hard to determine where HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s insanity begins and his act of madness ends. We are given, throughout the entirety of the play, one single act of passion from Hamlet that was done to simply give a larger voice to his slip on sanity. His murder of Polonius. He feels no remorse for the act, although he believed it to be Claudius and states after his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s cries Ã¢â¬Å"A bloody deed. Almost as bad, good mother/as kill a king and marry with his brotherÃ¢â¬ (III.iv.31). He continues Ã¢â¬Å"Peace! sit you down/and let me wring your heart;for so I shall,/if it be made of penetrable stuff;Ã¢â¬ (III.iv.38). Hamlet doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel sorry for his mother either. He could care less if she was disturbed by her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s murder of Polonius, he was going to tell her that he was right and she was wrong and sinful and disgusting, because it fit with the appearance Hamlet was trying to portray. Hamlet allowed this one, small, passionate outburst for the potential sake of avenging his father but even smart, logical Hamlet couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have predicted the consequences of this one act of passion because he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give himself the time to think it over. He never would have thought that their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death would lead poor Ophelia to madness or that Laertes would be so spited by it, or that it would get around that Hamlet himself had committed the murder. But all of these things do happen and they happen because of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s one moment of passion. The prince discovers why acting passionately is a bad thing for him; heÃ¢â¬â¢s just not good at it. He canÃ¢â¬â¢t judge when to, the whole Ã¢â¬Ëcould kill him now but IÃ¢â¬â¢m not going to even if itÃ¢â¬â¢d be so freaking easy,Ã¢â¬â¢ thing with Claudius and the Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢m gonna stab the curtain and see what happens,Ã¢â¬â¢ moment when he murdered Polonius. After PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢ murder and the discovery by Laertes that his sister is beyond mental, Claudius approaches the boy and tells him he can help avenge his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Laertes listens and latches to ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢ every word Ã¢â¬Å"And where the offence is let the great axe fall./I pray you go with meÃ¢â¬ (IV.v.234). The end of act four introduces a bit of a mess. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were sent with Hamlet to see him killed in England, however, Hamlet is on his way back to Elsinore and Claudius is none too pleased. However, he quickly turns this information into a plan he can work with. He has Laertes swear allegiance to him Ã¢â¬Å"will you be ruled by me?Ã¢â¬ (IV.vii.63) and recruits the younger man into the Ã¢â¬ËletÃ¢â¬â¢s kill Hamlet club.Ã¢â¬â¢ Thus, Hamlet finds himself in an unfortunate pickle. He had planned to kill Claudius and Laertes and they had planned to kill him, but Laertes acted sooner. Laertes let his passions guide his sword through HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s gut and Hamlet let logic lead him to the moment of his death; logic led by the very vengeance he had sworn for the former king. A passionate vengeance called upon to give Laertes strength to murder the prince. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to look at a situation and make a logical, well- thought out choice made him a strongly intelligent character. However his inability to act on passions or make a decisive decision drew him closer to death in every page. Had Hamlet acted on his earlier plans and ideas, he may not be dead.
Motivation In Second Language Learning Motivation, as other individual differences in second language learning, plays a significant role which could affect second language learning success. It is an incentive to start L2 learning and sustain the later learning process. In classroom settings, same teachers, same materials, it could be seen that even one with highly aptitudes in learning a second language could fail in its achievement if there is no adequate motivation. For the past several decades, social psychologists and educators have made much effort to study this complicated topic through different aspects. This assignment will try to give a description of key findings from literatures in this field which will mainly focus on two of the most influential approaches: Gardners motivation theory and self-determination theory (Deci Ryan,1985, 2002). And then I will present a brief critique on an empirical research which was worked by Lucas etal (2010) A Study on the Intrinsic Motivation Factors in Second Language Learning Among Selected Freshman Students. This study had found that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.At last, I will examine that this research is helpful in understanding second language learning and teaching from my personal experience. Key Findings in this research According to Zoltan Dornyei (2005), second language learning motivation research has gone through three phrases: The social psychology period, the cognitive-situated period, and the processed-oriented period. In these three different periods, it could be found that social psychologist Gardener and his colleagues made the great contribution to their theory about integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. They indicated that second language learning is different from learning other subjects. Because it could be seen that it shows ones personal disposition and identity. For example, learning English has been a fevour for many years in China. People learn it may be in order to pass the various examinations or to communicate with westerners freely. The former one could be instrumental motivation, alternatively, the later on could be seen as integrative motivation. Integrative motivation and instrumental motivation During the social psychology period, Integrative motivation and instrumental motivation has played a influential role.The definition of integrative motivation given by Gardner and Lambert is that learning a second language is an interest to communicate with other communities which is a way to acknowledge to their people and culture. Relatively, instrumental motivation is somehow a desire to learn a second language so as to get a job opportunity or fulfill a credit points in study. The following research later on found that integrative motivation and language learning success had positive relationship at different aspects. (Clement, 1980; Gardner, 1985, 2000; Gardner, Day,MacIntvre, 1992; GardnerLambert, 1972; GardnerMacIntvre, 1991, 1993; Gardner, Tremblav,Masgoret, 1997; Masgoret Gardner, 2003). For instance, Gardner and Lambert (1972) identified that the students in French courses. They studied how their integrative motivation and instrumental motivation functioned when they learning. They found that integrative motivation played an imortant role in successful learning French. Further evidence were given by Gardner, Tremblay, and Masgoret(1997) which support the point of view. During their research, participants did multiple choice test, a doze test, a vocabulary test, a composition and grades in French who had been measured by one hundred items. Important relationship was found between integrative motivation and each second language learning achievement. Examination given by Ely (1986) studied that to what extent the integrative and instrumental motivation theory could describe motivation of learning Spanish for freshmen in one university. He indicated that validity and the significance of Gardners theory. And then Ramage (1990) identified a group of students motivation in learning French or Spanish when they finished the second year of high school studying. She also investigated their desire to keep on learning French or Spanish. She confirmed that there was a positive relationship between in interest toward the second Language culture and the willingness to continue learning French or Spanish. As it has been mentioned above, the definition of integrativeness plays a key role in Gardner and Lamberts (Gardner, 1985, 2000; GardnerLambert, 1972) dominant conceptual framework of second language learning motivation. Other researchers, inspired by this theory had made a great numbers of empirical studies from various aspects (e.g., Clement, 1980; Clement, Dornyei,Noels, 1994; ClementKruidenier, 1985; Dornyei, 1990, 1994a; DornyeiKormos, 2000; Gardner, Day,MacIntyme, 1992; Gardner, Lalonde, Moorcroft, 1985; GardnerMacI.., 1991; Schumann, 1986). To some extend, it could say that these studies supplement and enrich the understanding of relationship between second language motivation and its attitudes toward culture. It has been found a positive view for second language learners who want to integrate other communities and get contact with people. Yet, as a enigma, integrativeness has still existing difficulties for the researchers to define its nature. Gardners (2001) said that the t erm is used frequently in the literature, though close inspection will reveal that it has slightly different meanings to many different individuals (p. 1). Further studies has still be needed. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation When it turns into cognitive-situated period, Self- determination theory which proposed by Deci and Ryan provides two kinds of motivation. Intrinsic interest focous on the activity for its own sake. On the other hand, extrinsic interest based on the rewards such as points, candies, compliments, money, test scores, or grades. However, These two types of motivation are not absolutely dichotomy. It could define that intrinsic motivation (IM) is a motivation which emphasize the enjoyment of engaging in activity. Ryan and Deci(1985) suggested that the nature needs for competence and self-determination is rooted in intrinsic motivation. Whats more, they supposed that people will choose to engage to an activity which is according to their propensities. Because the degree of the activity could rise. And then with challenging those difficulties, learners will realize a sense of competence in their abilities. However, the precondition is that they could be given free opportunities to choose. Ryan and Decis (2000) hypothesis cited in Lucas etal (2010: 6) stated that no single phenomenon reflects the positive potential of human nature as much as intrinsic motivationÃ ¼Ã âwhich is defined as the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise ones capacities, to explore, and to learn. Developmentalists confirmed that even without rewards, children are active and curious from the time when are born. It is so important for cognitive and social progress and that describe a main source of pleasure in life. Ryan and Deci (2000) posit that no single phenomenon reflects the positive potential of human nature as much as intrinsic motivationÃ ¼Ã âwhich is defined as the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise ones capacities, to explore, and to learn. Developmentalists acknowledge that from time of birth, children, in their earliest and healthiest states, are active, inquisitive, curious, and playfulÃ ¼Ã âeven in the absence of rewards. The whole construct of intrinsic motivation describes this natural inclination toward assimilation, masteryÃ ¼Ã âspontaneous interest, and exploration that is so essential to cognitive and social development and that represents a principal source of enjoyment throughout life (CsikszentmihalyiRat hund e, 1993; Ryan1995 in Ryan DeciÃ ¼Ã â2000). RyanÃ ¼Ã âKuhl and Deci (1997) also argued that despite the fact That humans are liberally endowed with intrinsic motivaions, it is clear that the maintenance and enhancement of this inherent propensity requires supportive conditions, as it can be readily disrupted by various non supportive conditions. Thus, their theory of intrinsic motivation does not concern what causes intrinsic motivationÃ ¼Ã âbut ratherÃ ¼Ã âit examines the conditions that elicit and su staff nÃ ¼Ã âversus subdue and diminish this innate propensity. Thus, Deci and Ryan (1985) presented the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) as a subtheory within SDT self-determination theory that had the aim of specifying factors that explain variability in intrinsic motivation. CET was conceptualized in terms of social and environmental factors That facilitate versus undermine intrinsic motivation, being inherent, will be catalyzed when individuals are in conditions that conduce toward its expression. The study of conditions that facilitate versus undermine intrinsic motivation is an important step in understanding sources of both alienation and liberation of the positive aspects of human nature. Furthermore, CET specifies that feelings of competence will not enhance intrinsic motivation unless accompanied by a sense of autonomy (FisherÃ ¼Ã â1978; RyanÃ ¼Ã â1982 i n Ryan Deci.2000). To sumÃ ¼Ã âCET framework suggests that social environments can facilitate or forestall intrinsic motivation by supporting versus thwarting peoples innate psychological needs. Strong links between intrinsic motivation and satisfaction of the needs for autonomy and competence have been demonstrated.It is critical to remember that people will be intrinsically motivated only for activities that hold intrinsic interest for themÃ ¼Ã âactivities that have the appeal of noveltyÃ ¼Ã âchallenge, or aesthetic value.(Ryan and Deci 2000) The term extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain some separable outcome, and thus, contrasts with intrinsic motivaionÃ ¼Ã âwhich refers to doing an activity for the inherent satisfaction of theactivity itself. In contrast to intrinsically motivated behaviors, extrinsic motivation (EM)are those actions carried out to achieve some instrumental endÃ ¼Ã âsuch as earning a reward or avoiding a punishment. This type of motivation does not necessarily imply a lack of self-determination in the behaviors performed.Ryan an d Deci (1985) and Vallerand (1987) maintained that different types of extrinsic motivation (EM)could be classified along a continuum according to the extent to which they are internalized into the self- concept (i.e., the extent to which the motivation isself -determined ). Critique on a empirical research The paper focused on intrinsic motivation factors that may help identify what specific L2 communicative skill students are more motivated to learn. The study involved 240 freshman college students from different universities and colleges in Metro Manila. A 48-item questionnaire was administered to the selected respondents. The results of the study showed that students are intrinsically motivated to learn speaking and reading skills and that they are intrinsically motivated via knowledge and accomplishment. These may suggest that students are motivated to learn these linguistic skills due to the very nature of the skills which they find interesting and relevant to them. The mastery of these linguistic skills somehow helps them achieve their learning goals which may bring benefits to them in the future. The study investigated if students are intrinsically motivated to learn L2 communicative skills such as writing, reading, speaking and listening. It also examined the factors of intrinsic motivation that may help determine why and why they are not motivated to learn those macro skills. This study adapted Deci and Ryans (1985) self-determination theory and Vallerands (1997) Academic Motivation Benefits from the research The study puts forward the reality that indeedÃ ¼Ã âEnglish is a prestigious language and that students will always be interested to learn this language due to the many benefits it may bring. Their bilingual exposure at a very early stage in their lives puts the Filipino young language learner to an advantage over their Asian counterparts. It could be seen that motivation is a key component in second language learning. However, in my teaching experience, I could find some students still could be lowly motivated or even lost motivation in learning English. The reasons for this could be found by the research just discussed above. Lucas etal (2010) generated that teachers are influential in their students motivation towards their own learning competencies. Thus, it is highly important for the second language teachers to improve their own qualification of teaching continuously. Moreover, sufficient preparation for every class is needed. Students always expected to learn as much as possible interesting and helpful skills from teachers instruction. So reasonable design and arrangement of the details of classroom activities could help students achieve their goals. Firstly, factors relating to a class design should be taken into account such as the length of time, the level of students proficiency, the size of the class, teaching equipment and approaches. Secondly, it is possible that unexpected problems could happen in the process of teaching. Therefore, how to change and adapt other ways of teaching should be considered. For example, at different stages, the teachers role could be instructors or friends. Thirdly, during my classroom settings, the procedures often go by the following process: leading in, explaining, practicing and output. It could be said that each steps have their own features. Thus, it is significant to noticing activities adoption, the ways of communication and giving feedback. I found that students could get fulfillment and satisfying from a successful classroom teaching process. Thus, in other words, a teacher with more competence in teaching could help students become more confident in learning. At last, students motivation could be motivated and improve their achievement in second language learning. In addition to intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation could also function as a positive role in teaching English. Bilingual exposure in a second language environment could stimulate students extrinsic motivation through different ways. After entering WTO, it has become a heated-topic to learning English. Student extrinsic motivation have been highly strengthened when they found other people were all learning English. Relatively, it could say that if one found the other students have no interest in learning this kind of language, he or she will probably feel the same way. From another aspects, further more, it could also say that parents positive attitude towards English language and cultures of English speaking countries could generate their childrens extrinsic motivation toward English learning . Conversely, parents negative attitude could result their lack of learning . 4 how to stimulate students motivation During teaching process, teachers could combine the teaching materials and specific classroom settings to help students to establish a conducive learning motivation, for example, to develop learners interest in learning the language and its culture. At the same time, it is helpful if students could to change their attitudes toward learning second language. At last, they could turn their extrinsic motivation into extrinsic motivation. 4.1 to provide a good classroom environment The classroom environment is very important to language teaching. As Gardner (1981) stated that we can not actually teach students a foreign language, but only to create a suitable language learning environment for students. Good classroom atmosphere could not only make students learning actively and enhance their motivation but also could greatly improve their ability to learn. Psychological research shows that studying in a relative relax and joyful environment could maintain fine mental state and enhance ones memory. Furthermore, it is helpful for letting students thinking creatively and find their potential abilities. Conversely, if the classroom environment is tedious, the state of students learning could be poor. Consequently, negative attitudes toward learning could appear which will weaken the motivation, learning effect will not be guaranteed. In addition, the establishment of the communicative environment is also very important for teachers. It is very likely to stimulated students second language learning motivation by providing their opportunities to use language in an authentic environment. Therefore teachers should as much as possible to try to create communication opportunities and harmonious environment to improve students motivation to learn. Inspire students learning motivation through classroom activities. It could be seen that providing students successful learning experience and cultivating their intrisinc interest in activities could achieve the aim of improve students learning motivation in second language learning. there are part of students who have not been inspired by extrinsic or intrinsinc motivation in the classroom settings. For them, targeted activities could be important. Because they could find their learning interest during the participation of various and useful activities. It could say that offering opportunities for students with experience of success by designing suitable actives is a key role in second language learning achievement. 4.3 helping students to establish learning goals Learning objectives could be divided into long-term goals and short-term goals. Long-term goals could relatively ensure learners learning behavior to keep a longer time. Alternatively, achievement of the short-term goals could give students the fulfillment of learning experience, so that students can have a strong learning motivation. Therefore, according to learners different levels of learning, teacher could help students to establish specific long-term goals and short-term goals. Whats more, Long-term goals should have high standards and short-term goals must be feasible. 4.4 understand the students learning needs It is significant for language teachers to understand students learning needs so as to instruct them what they want to learn. Because it is a useful way to arouses students study enthusiasm, and cultivate their interest in learning by fulfill their thirst for knowledge. Conclusion So far, second language learning motivation is still a complicated topic which has many aspects waiting for further study It is has been widely accepted that motivation plays a very significant role in second language learning achievement. The reason for some students learning poorly mainly is that they do not have highly motivation. Motivational strategies for second language learning is important . it is obvious that teacher could not create students extrinsic motivation, but teachers attitudes towards second language and its culture could have a great effect on its development. Activities in the classroom could cultivate students intrinsic motivation. .
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Interpreting A Rose For Emily William Faulkner (1897-1962) is known for his portrayals of the tragic conflict between the old and the new South. The majority of Faulkner's works are centered on his hometown of Oxford, in Lafayette County, Mississippi. In his works of fiction, his hometown is used, but is renamed to Jefferson, in Yoknapatawpha County. This author's fiction recreates more than a century of life in the town of Jefferson a few years before, during and after the Civil War. Many different types of people come into focus in his literature. A Rose for Emily easily fits into FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s pattern of fiction writing. The present, or Ã¢â¬Å"new southÃ¢â¬ agenda was expressed several ways in A Rose for Emily; through the words of the narrator, the new Board of Aldermen, Homer Barron (the Yankee), and in what was called Ã¢â¬Å"the next generation with its more modern ideasÃ¢â¬ (354). This technique is not unusual for Faulkner. It is present in many of his works and that is why A Rose for Emily is easily interpreted. In A Rose for Emily, Faulkner discussed those conflicting values of the past and present and point out those values that are misrepresented and those that continue to have meaning for today by contrasting the past with the present era as he descriptively portrayed unusual characters. In A Rose for Emily, the past was represented in Emily. Miss Emily was referred to as a "fallen monument" in the story (353). She and her antiquated home were almost a shrine to Southern gentility and an ideal of past values. She and her home were depicted as susceptible to death and decay. Through this imagery Faulkner was symbolizing the demise of the way of life of the old, pre-industrial, pre-civil war south. The description of he... ...f the narrator, the new Board of Aldermen, Homer Barron (the Yankee), and in what was called Ã¢â¬Å"the next generation with its more modern ideasÃ¢â¬ is contrasted with Emily and all those who could not accept the loss of the Civil War and the beginning of new ways ( 354). Emily, and the old south in general did conquer time briefly by retreating into the "rose-tinted" world of the past. This sort of retreat is hopeless since everyone, even Emily, was finally vulnerable to death and to the invasion by the inhabitants of the world of the present. Faulkner expressed this inevitable invasion at the very beginning of the story when the narrator claims, Ã¢â¬Å"When Miss Emily died, [the] whole town went to her funeralÃ¢â¬ ( 353). The whole town of Jefferson eventually must lay to rest the ways of the past and Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral is the perfect setting for a collection of outdated values.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Just imagine the scene: and newlywed wife and husband are sitting down with a catalog, browsing joyously, pointing and awing at all the different options, fantasizing about all the possibilities that could become of their future. Is this a catalog for new furniture? No. This catalog for all features, phenotype and genotype, for the child they are planning to have. It is basically a database for parents to pick and choose all aspects of their children, from the sex of the child, to looks, and even to personality traits. Parents since the beginning of time have Ã¢â¬Å"plannedÃ¢â¬ to have children, but never have they been able to legitimately Ã¢â¬Å"planÃ¢â¬ out their child. This scene does not seem typical for our time and age, but truthfully it is what is becoming of our world. Through substantial research and experimentation that is taking place, scientists, specifically biologists, are becoming keener to the field of engineering. Genetic engineering that is. When one thinks of Ã¢â¬Å"genetic engineering,Ã¢â¬ the first thought is probably a perfect child, or paradoxically some inconceivable creature, forged under the microscope in a scientific laboratory. Though both of these are genetic engineering, many people do not consider other things, such as genetic engineering of agriculture and medicine, both of which are extremely useful. Through the genetic altering of plants and crops, scientists have been able to manipulate their genes to withstand lower temperatures, to resist herbicides and insects, and to even extending shelf life of some particular products (Gert 1). This technology has made farmers more prosperous, as well as given the population more food that will last longer. In medicine, Ã¢â¬Å"a patent has already been applied for to mix human embryo... ...engineering gone too far?Ã¢â¬ 1). The creation of Ã¢â¬Å"chimeras,Ã¢â¬ animals containing cells from another animal, has been one of the biggest controversial topics in genetic engineering (ibid). Researchers fret over creating new diseases by combining genes to make new ones (ibid). If this were to happen, political figures may step in and enforce strict guidelines and regulations for genetic engineering. In fact, in 2006, President George Bush asked to prohibit the creation of Ã¢â¬Å"human-animal hybridsÃ¢â¬ (ibid). Other scientists retaliate by claiming that these Ã¢â¬Å"chimerasÃ¢â¬ can help find cures to known diseases, and could become one of the most helpful tools in their arsenal of ideas for the future (ibid). Either way, whether or not the use of chimeras is acceptable is debatable. If used, they could bring up new problems as well as solve old ones that have riddled us for decades.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Biography: During his few weeks as Vice President, Harry S Truman scarcely saw President Roosevelt, and received no briefing on the development of the atomic bomb or the unfolding difficulties with Soviet Russia. Suddenly these and a host of other wartime problems became Truman's to solve when, on April 12, 1945, he became President. He told reporters, "I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me." Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri, in 1884. He grew up in Independence, and for 12 years prospered as a Missouri farmer. He went to France during World War I as a captain in the Field Artillery. Returning, he married Elizabeth Virginia Wallace, and opened a haberdashery in Kansas City. Active in the Democratic Party, Truman was elected a judge of the Jackson County Court (an administrative position) in 1922. He became a Senator in 1934. During World War II he headed the Senate war investigating committee, checking into waste and corruption and saving perhaps as much as 15 billion dollars. As President, Truman made some of the most crucial decisions in history. Soon after V-E Day, the war against Japan had reached its final stage. An urgent plea to Japan to surrender was rejected. Truman, after consultations with his advisers, ordered atomic bombs dropped on cities devoted to war work. Two were Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japanese surrender quickly followed. In June 1945 Truman witnessed the signing of the charter of the United Nations, hopefully established to preserve peace. Thus far, he had followed his predecessor's policies, but he soon developed his own. He presented to Congress a 21-point program, proposing the expansion of Social Security, a full-employment program, a permanent Fair Employment Practices Act, and public housing and slum clearance. The program, Truman wrote, "symbolizes for me my assumption of the office of President in my own right." It became known as the Fair Deal. Dangers and crises marked the foreign scene as Truman campaigned successfully in 1948. In foreign affairs he was already providing his most effective leadership. In 1947 as the Soviet Union pressured Turkey and, through guerrillas, threatened to take over Greece, he asked Congress to aid the two countries, enunciating the program that bears his name--the Truman Doctrine. The Marshall Plan, named for his Secretary of State, stimulated spectacular economic recovery in war-torn western Europe. When the Russians blockaded the western sectors of Berlin in 1948, Truman created a massive airlift to supply Berliners until the Russians backed down.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Cecilia Penifader lived on the English manor of Brigstock in the early fourteenth century. She was not a princess nor was she of noble blood. She was, in fact, a peasant. While many people today would consider her poor and lowly just because of that title, she was actually rather successful in life and was one of the wealthier peasants of her time. Cecilia did not leave behind any personal writings, as most medieval peasants were illiterate, but her life has since been pieced together through the use of the archives of Brigstock. These archives reveal many aspects of CeciliaÃ¢â¬â¢s life. They tell us that she functioned as the head of a household, that she faced gender bias because she was only a woman, and that she led a family-oriented lifestyle. Cecilia went through life as a singlewoman, the term used by medieval peoples to describe women who never got married (Bennett 143). Because she never married, she was considered to be the head of her own household. She held many of the same rights that men had as heads of their households. She certainly had more freedom than her married sisters; a wife was completely dependent on her husband, who functioned as the head of the household (Bennett 115). As the head of her household, Cecilia could hold the title of an independent tenant of the manor. She was able to accumulate several acres of land throughout her lifetime, and she could buy and sell it as she pleased. By the time of her death, she had acquired an extensive amount of land and other possessions. Cecilia also had the ability to manage her household as she saw fit. This meant that it was necessary for her to organize her household and lands effectively in order to survive a less than favorable economy, especially during the periods of the Great Famine and the Black Death. Though Cecilia lacked a family to provide supportive labor to the household, she could usually manage her lands on her own because she chose to devote her land to the less labor-intensive practice of animal husbandry. If she did hire workers, it was probably only at certain times in the year so she could have help with plowing her property, cutting hay from her meadows, and harvesting her food (Bennett 98). To help ease labor demands of her household, Cecilia also bought goods from others in the commodity market. In this market, people could purchase almost anything that they were in need of (Bennett 94). Through what Bennett calls an Ã¢â¬Å"economy of makeshifts,Ã¢â¬ Cecilia was able to function effectively and make a suitable living for herself, without a husband. Despite CeciliaÃ¢â¬â¢s success as an independent head of the household, she still did not receive the same treatment in her community as men did. For example, when males turned twelve, they entered groups called tithings. These groups contained ten or more men who were responsible for making sure they all obeyed the laws, and if someone did not follow the laws, the other members of the group were responsible for making sure that the law-breaker showed up in court (Bennett 144). Cecilia could not be a part of these groups because of her gender. While few peasants ever learned to read or write, those that did were men. Cecilia would not have been given the opportunity that her brothers may have. Men also earned better wages than women did (Bennett 117). As a woman, Cecilia was unable to hold office or pledge in court, meaning that she could not stand in court to affirm that someone would do what he or she claimed. While this may not seem major, it actually prevented Cecilia from creating important networks throughout her community, and even from possibly accumulating income (Bennett 120). Cecilia may have been an independent woman in her community, but she still had close ties to her family throughout her entire life. When she was young, she obviously relied on her family, primarily her parents, to raise her and teach her important life skills. After her parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ deaths, Cecilia often bought land that was next to those of her brothers or were near lands that they bought. With properties near each other, the Penifaders could help each other work on their lands (Bennett 80). Family was also important in court for Cecilia as well. Every time she did business in court, she needed a man to be a pledge and back her promise that she would pay the amount that she needed to pay. When she went to court on these occasions, she relied on her brothers or men that her brothers knew well to pledge for her (Bennett 81). In June of 1336, Cecilia and her brother Robert combined their resources and their households. Neither of them was married and they were both in the last few years of their lives. In combining their possessions, they supported each other and entrusted each other with their possessions when one of them died (Bennett 82). Before Cecilia died, she attempted to give some of her relatives who would not have originally had a part in her inheritance a twenty-four year lease on her lands. She chose to give her lands to those relatives whom she liked best. Although her wishes were not considered legitimate because she was not able to fulfill all the requirements to make the lease legally binding, this shows that she was trying to provide for her family and ensure that they would be cared for in the future (Bennett 85). Cecilia Penifader was certainly a prosperous peasant in fourteenth century European society. She successfully functioned as the head of her own household despite the many disadvantages of being a woman, and family was a major part of her life. While studying the history of someone like Cecilia Penifader may be interesting, studying the histories of exceptional male figures like kings, knights, and clergy reveal more about certain time periods than the histories of ordinary people. This is because the lives of ordinary people like Cecilia can often be generalized since there are so many people that live lives similar to one another. Exceptional people, on the other hand, are often persons who have exhibited qualities that are highly esteemed by people in that period or severely looked down upon. These cases may not be representative of society as a whole, but the fact that those stories are passed down over others reveals the values and general workings of the societies they came from .
Friday, August 16, 2019
1.HOG has been phenomenally successful at attracting members and chapters. From nothing in 1983 it has grown to half a million members in 1,160 chapters. This is the core of Harley-DavidsonÃ¢â¬â¢s market and it is easily reachable through Hog Tales magazine. This is particularly important for Harley given that its customers are so varied making it hard to reach them through traditional marketing methods. HOG overcomes the wide differences in its membership by focusing on their common passion, motorcycle riding. While members get to meet fellow enthusiasts, Harley gets to keep their attention on Harley. As it cannot compete with Japanese imports on price, and perhaps quality, Harley has to focus on its brand. HOG builds brand community and dispels the old image of Harley owners as HellÃ¢â¬â¢s Angels gangs. In fact, Harley has been so successful in building its brand that BusinessWeek ranks it as the 44th most valuable in the world. Retaining Harley owners is clearly lucrative; Harley estimates that active HOG members spend an extra $850 a year with the company. This translated into over $140 million, money that can easily be spent elsewhere by less loyal customers. 2.Given that HOG serves to retain and reach customers by building a brand community, the Posse Rides serve to create a brand within the brand. Lisa Laundry describes Harley as Ã¢â¬Å"a mystique, a lifestyle as opposed to a brand.Ã¢â¬ Ã This kind of awe is mixed with a cultist sense of community, a dollop of patriotism and Americana, and commitment to riding to create your average Harley rally pilgrim. The Posse Rides focus on the latter part of that physiological make-up, on the hard-core riders. It allows these people to differentiate themselves from the larger group of Harley owners. The first Posse Ride was a big success, giving participants bragging rights that they promptly exercised on return to their HOG chapters. This word of mouth raised expectations for the sequel which, like many sequels, it failed to live up to. Participants expected their T-shirts stop after stop, and they expected to mingle with management to share their views. The results of the pre and post-ride surveys (see Exhibit 1) show high satisfaction with their bikes and the ride itself, but much lower satisfaction with HOG and Harley as a company, particularly afterwards. This is dangerous as it undermines brands loyalty. Barbara Hammet is right when she says Ã¢â¬Å"Harley certainly has enough money that if they have to eat a shirt or two, it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter.Ã¢â¬ Given the importance of T-shirts as souvenirs, or markers, to participants there is no excuse for not having enough on hand. If management had been paying attention on the 1st Posse they should know this. One has to ask why the mangers ride together at all? They can meet at the office, or have their own intra-office Posse. They should be seen to be part of the larger group. 400 people over ten days is not many people to Ã¢â¬Ëmeet and greetÃ¢â¬â¢ for say, four managers. Mike Keefe defends management by saying Ã¢â¬Å"What they donÃ¢â¬â¢t see is the research that occurs unobtrusivelyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The end of his sentence is unimportant because if they do not see it, or more importantly feel it, it is worthless. The old axiom, Ã¢â¬ËIf itÃ¢â¬â¢s worth doing, itÃ¢â¬â¢s worth doing rightÃ¢â¬â¢, applies here. Harley should spend more time and resources doing so. 3.That the Posse Rides are worth doing should not be doubted. They are part of the brand image; a two-mile long rolling billboard for Harley. Seeing old and young, male and female Posse Riders traveling together projects an open, inclusive image for Harley. The Posses are advertising for Harley and its dealers and Harley should exploit this more. It should encourage, even subsidize, dealers to build on the Posse Rides in ways such as the dealer inÃ Duluth did on the 1st Posse. Coordination with local TV and radio should be used to raise awareness and crowds. The dealer network should also be used by the Posse Rides to solve logistical problems such as the T-shirts fiasco. Given that Posse Rides have different routes, most dealers will be able to participate over time. 4. While the visual promotional effect of the Posse Rides should be exploited as much as possible, commercializing them should be avoided. Participants are HarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s best customers and it should take the opportunity to reward them, not exploit them. These people are not stupid and will soon notice if Harley tries to squeeze out every last cent from them. The indirect benefits, such as building brand awareness and loyalty, are much more important than short-term sales. If participants want to shop at every dealer, great, but their direct costs should be kept as low as possible. Given their wide differences in income, raising prices will simply drive off working class participants that blow their annual wad on one rally. This would change the nature of the Posse from an open, inclusive group to a rich, closed one. Over time, as Posse Rides become a feature of HarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s brand, it would depreciate the brand. Posse Rides will also have to maintain their exclusivity if they are to be continually successful. If everyone can get a Posse T-shirt because of merchandizing they will not be worth having to real Posse Riders. Keeping the number of participants small also adds to the feeling of exclusivity, as does not running the Posse Rides more than biannually. This should also help to maintain a feeling of spontaneity that is missing from regularly scheduled, annual events. Exhibit 1 1.I will definitely sign up for another long distance HOG rally 2. If I were to replace my motorcycle I would buy another Harley 3. I would recommend this ride to a friend 4. I feel a sense of kinship with other Harley owners 5. I have made lifelong friends because of my Harley 6. My Harley says a lot about the kind of person I am 7. I really understand what Harley is all about 8. No one but Harley-Davidson could put on an event like this 9. Harley-Davidson really understands what riding a bike is all about 10. I am satisfied with HOG 11. Harley-Davidson really cares about me as a customer 12. Harley really understands my needs 13. My Harley is an integral part of my daily life