Wednesday, July 31, 2019
First of all, the aim of business is increasing of income. They should consider how to maintain existing regular income and to increase new revenue by the expansion. When the business is expanded, they should have enough research and money. The expand looks dangerous. For the safety, they need life guards who are strong swimmers and helpers to control houseboat in high winds. It has many interceptive problems for the expansion like climate and noise. For the success, they need equip tent, beach parasol and soundproof walls. Before making an investment in the expansion, they should consider with the profitability. ASSESSMENT TOOL 2 In Australia, federal and state laws protect you, your business and your customers from unfair trading practices and mishandling of personal information. These laws, together with industry codes of practice, help to ensure that your business operates fairly and competitively and that all consumers are adequately informed and protected. In tort law, a duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they adhere to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. It is the first element that must be established to proceed with an action in negligence. The claimant must be able to show a duty of care imposed by law which the defendant has breached. In turn, breaching a duty may subject an individual to liability. The duty of care may be imposed by operation of law between individuals with no current direct relationship (familial or contractual or otherwise), but eventually become related in some manner, as defined by common law (meaning case law). Duty of care may be considered a formalization of the social contract, the implicit responsibilities held by individuals towards others within society. It is not a requirement that a duty of care be defined by law, though it will often develop through the jurisprudence of common law. Assessment tool 3: project Part1 Current risk management These are the three ways to control the risk of any loss: Insurance Loss prevention Contingency planning Nearly every warehouse operator has insurance. You need to recognize the significant differences in liability among logistics service providers, common carriers and wholesale distributors scope The place where raw material and/or finished goods are stored is referred to as warehouse or store. Generally, warehouse is structure or building design keeping in mind raw material and finished goods it is going to store. Therefore, warehouse management should be able to: Receive the purchase goods and entered upon the stock register. Inventory Accounting of raw material, work-in-progress or finished goods. Preservation of the inventory Ability to access goods whenever called upon. Appropriate record keeping through coding as to preserve goods and reduce obsolescence. Proper stocking of goods as ensure smooth handling. Political environment The political environment is a key component of the business environment that dictates greatly on the success of your home business. What happens in the politics of your country as well as that of other countries influences a lot your home business. Usually, the term political environment is used to refer to the nature of the political situation in the country where you are doing business or where you intend to do business. Economic climate A general characterization of the overall mood of the global economy or of a regional economy, which captures the status of the stock market, the perception of the economy by consumers, and the availability of jobs and credit. Business decisions such as hiring, borrowing, lending, and investment in new initiatives are often strongly influenced by the overall economic climate. Social Factors We all live in either a multicultural or self society so this means there are many factors that affect or direct our lifestyle. These factors are called social factors. some important social actors are: 1. Religion 2. Ethnicity 3. Family 4. Physical attributes 5. Economic Status 6. Education 7. Locality( Location) 8. Life Partner and children 9. Political System Legal factors Legal factors relate to new laws or directives governing how businesses behave. This can be in relation to other businesses, customers or the environment. For example, it is essential that all agricultural products are used safely. Syngenta seeks to meet and exceed the requirements of local and international laws for all the countries within which it operates. Policy context Climate change is a complex issue and responding to it requires the planner to navigate the rapidly evolving landscape of information, advice, policy and legislation. By providing context and background, this section of the toolkit will help you make informed decisions about developing and implementing policy in this area. Critical success factor (CSF) is the term for an element that is necessary for an organization or project to achieve its mission. It is a critical factor or activity required for ensuring the success of a company or an organization. The term was initially used in the world of data analysis, and business analysis. For example, a CSF for a successful Information Technology (IT) project is user involvement. Stakeholder 1. Accountable Ã¢â¬â some stakeholders are accountable for the success of the entire project or a particular phase of the project, generally they are the departmental or divisional managers or; 2. Responsible Ã¢â¬â some stakeholders are responsible for the deliverables, generally they have been charged by management to provide a definitive outcome from the project; or 3. Consultation Ã¢â¬â some stakeholders are used as consultants like an Subject Matter Expert (SME); or 4. Informed Ã¢â¬â some stakeholders need to be kept informed, generally management who needs to know where their investment dollars have ended up or external parties. Stakeholder Internal Stakeholders Board members Former board members Staff members Former staff members Volunteers Former Volunteers Donors External Stakeholders Clients Community partners Members of groups served by our organization who are not accessing our services Leaders of color from nonprofit, public, or private sectors Stakeholders do not need to know everything about the technology or even the application. A high level overview with the understanding of what is beingÃ delivered is sufficient. What stakeholders need to provide is a positive energy charge to lead the organisation through this project. Working with such stakeholders will provide the project with a boost of confidence knowing that the stakeholders are enthusiastic about this project. Given the right stakeholders in any given project, the success rate of the project will be much better than having stakeholders with judgemental bias whereby these stakeholders will reflect inappropriate reasoning compared with best practises as provided by the implementation team. This is a crucial step in applying the risk management process. Like many aspects of risk management, the identification of significant risks is often subjective and reliant on personal experience and judgement. For this reason, several heads will be found to be better than one during this phase of the process. It is therefore important that relevant operational staff be closely involved in identifying and/or confirming significant risks under each source category. PART 2 STRENGTHS The strengths listed below were identified in the business: The managing member of the business is committed, dedicated and passionate about providing warehousing and distribution services. The creditworthiness of the business owner The knowledge and skills demonstrated by the member The business has done a study of the market and identified potential customers for their business WEAKNESSES The identified weaknesses for ExpressX Warehousing and Distribution (Transportation) Services are as follows: The lack of highly specialized warehousing and distribution expertise within the business The lack of funding to source highly specialized technology is a weakness for the business The lack of a comprehensive marketing plan and strategy is another weakness The small workforce capacity may result in the business loosing out on lucrative warehousing and distribution opportunities OPPORTUNITIES There are numerous opportunities for the business in terms of Government assistance. The business is open to assistance from agencies such as Small Enterprise Development Agency, The National Youth Development Agency and many others Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment presents great opportunities for ExpressX Warehousing and Distribution Services There are opportunities for South Africans to export products. This may bring about a market for warehousing services as some goods need to be stored in a reliable warehouse prior to being exported The opportunity presented by SETA could open better avenues for learnership and development in the business Other opportunities include the growth in middle income groups as well as the increase in double income families THREATS There is a threat from well established competitors that have a solid goodwill The threat attributable to changes in the preferences and tastes of consumers The threat from substitute services The threat from new entrants as the barriers of entry are not too cumbersome Risks Description Mitigation of risks Finance risk The financial risk is observed from the fact that the contribution to be made the owner is considerably less as compared to the required outside borrowings that are to be sourced from banks in form of a loan. The business owner will retain at least 60% of the profits into the business. This will be done in the first year of operations so as to mitigate the risk within the short term. Market risk The market features well established competitors and therefore ExpressX Warehousing and Distribution (Transportation) Services will have to compete for market share. The market risk may also surface from the fact that most manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers and other parties likely to utilize warehousing services already have in house warehouses and handle their own distribution. The business will seek assistance from small business support agencies such as the National Youth Development Agency for assistance with a comprehensive marketing plan and strategy. The marketing plan and strategy will help the business compete with greater strength and position it to attain a greater customer satisfaction rate. Human resource risk In terms of human resource, the risk may be a result of the business not being able to recruit the right employees and retain quality employees. High quality employees may prove to be costly to retain. The human resource risk will be mitigated by actively pursuing learnership and development activities. The business will seek assistance from SEDA for skills development. Operational risk The business might have capacity and equipment constraints as some goods for storage require special storage facilities. There may also be a risk of not being as efficient and effective due to lack of advanced logistics software and other technologies. The business will in the initial stages focus on storing merchandise that does not require specials storage facilities and then pursue advanced storage facilities at a later stage. The business will strive to source affordable support technologies. Part 3 What are the hazards? Who might be harmed and how? What are you already doing? What further action is necessary? Slips, trips and falls All staff may suffer sprains or fractures if they trip over debris or slip on spillages. Flooring kept dry and quality maintained. All staff trained to maintain good housekeeping standards and ensure stock does not project into gangways. Cleaner empties bins and removes loose debris daily. Pallets stored safely in designated area. Protective non-slip footwear supplied and worn. Suitable absorber to be made available for liquid spills. Staff to be trained to clean and dry any spillages immediately. Extra bins to be provided for waste material near loading bays. Operation of lift trucks Injuries such as fractures or, at worst, fatalities can be caused as a result of: the vehicle crashing into other vehicles and/or other objects; staff and visitors being hit by lift trucks; objects falling from lift trucks onto staff and visitors; lift trucks toppling over; people falling from the vehicle or parts of the vehicle; and being crushed by the mast All operators trained and competent for use of the lift truck. Trucks serviced regularly and examined by suppliers every six months. Drivers instructed to keep keys with them at all times System in place for refresher training of drivers. Gangways and aisles of sufficient space to enable lift trucks to load and unload from the racking safely. System in place to keep vehicles and pedestrians separated. Access to warehouse restricted to staff. Floor condition maintained on a regular basis, housekeeping standards maintained by cleaner and workforce. Warning signs located around the traffic route. Trucks have seat belts and roll cages. Supervisor to ensure truck drivers check trucks each day before starting. Separate pedestrian entrance(s) with protective barrier rail to be provided next to roller-shutter doors. Housekeeping standards and floor condition to be covered by a monthly inspection by manager and brief record kept. Strict requirement that only competent drivers may operate lift trucks to be explained to all staff. Disciplinary action to be taken against anyone involved in breaking this rule. Falling objects From racking and during movement A member of staff or any other person in the warehouse may suffer serious injury if struck by a falling object Racking is designed to be suitable for the loads carried and has not been modified. Staff report any damage to racking immediately. System in place to make sure defective pallets withdrawn from use immediately. Protective footwear used by all entering warehouse. Protective gloves provided to handle pallets. Sign fixed to racking stating maximum loads/configuration. Hazardous substances Vehicle exhaust fumes The fumes may cause staff eye irritation and respiratory irritation. Number of vehicles delivering materials is relatively low and exposure very limited; this prevents build-up of fumes. Drivers not allowed to leave vehiclesÃ¢â¬â¢ engines running in warehouse. Roller shutter doors and warehouse windows open, where practicable, to assist ventilation. No further action required. Bleach and cleaning fluids Direct skin contact could lead to the cleaner getting skin irritation. The vapour may cause the cleaner to have eye irritation or breathing difficulties Cleaner made aware of safe procedures. Rubber gloves used. First-aid facilities (including eye wash) are readily available. Investigate availability of safer alternatives for cleaner. Recharging of forklift truck batteries Ã¢â¬â potential explosion by release of hydrogen, spillage of acid Burns or fractures from material ejected could affect any worker nearby at the time Batteries charged in designated bay that is well ventilated. Safe system of work used which includes provision and use of goggles and gloves. Potential sources of ignition controlled. Supervisor to monitor and ensure protective equipment is being worn. Falls from height Staff could suffer severe or even fatal injuries if they fell whilst climbing racking All staff are given strict instructions never to climb racking Ã¢â¬â monitored by supervisors Part 4 Suitable absorber to be made available for liquid spills. Staff to be trained to clean and dry any spillages immediately. Extra bins to be provided for waste material near loading bays. Supervisor to ensure truck drivers check trucks each day before starting. Separate pedestrian entrance(s) with protective barrier rail to be provided next to roller-shutter doors. Housekeeping standards and floor condition to be covered by a monthly inspection by manager and brief record kept. Strict requirement that only competent drivers may operate lift trucks to be explained to all staff. Disciplinary action to be taken against anyone involved in breaking this rule. Sign fixed to racking stating maximum loads/configuration To identify the hazards The manager then wrote down who could be harmed by the hazards and how. For each hazard identified, the manager recorded what controls, if any, were in place to manage these. She then compared these controls to the good practice guidance laid out in Warehousing and storage: A guide to health and safety and Essentials of health and safety at work publications. Where existing controls did not meet good practice, the manager wrote down what further actions were needed to manage the risk. Putting the findings of the risk assessment into practice, the warehouse manager decided who was responsible for implementing the further actions and when it should be done. She wrote this down and when each action was completed it was ticked off and the date recorded. The warehouse manager discussed the findings with the safety representative. They decided to review and update the assessment at least annually, or at any time when major changes to the workplace occurred. The warehouse manager gave out copies of the risk assessment to all members of staff.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Definitions Paper OI/361 Innovation, Design, and Creativity for a Competitive Advantage March 18, 2013 Innovation is important for progress. Without companies and people to drive new ideas in the workplace there would not be progress. The American Heritage Dictionary defines innovation states, Ã¢â¬Å"The acting of introducing something newÃ¢â¬ (American Heritage Dictionary 2008). Many forms of innovation exist, however, in business it is link to the sharing of information through desire and passion to deliver results.Furthermore, innovation does not have to be this spectacular new product. However, the innovation needs to benefit the public or business. This paper will show the definition of every term, discusses their business implications, and a comparison and contrast. Design is a tangible thing that is created from an activity. According to the University of Phoenix text, Ã¢â¬Å"Design is the conscious decision-making process by which information (an idea) is transformed into an outcome, be it tangible (product) or intangible (service)Ã¢â¬ (2008).Design is the link to the corporate industry because many people relate to industry. However, design is also a decision to change something. Creativity comes from the mind; the company or companies have a vision in which they want to show they have the best products on the market. What bothers these companies is they rely on raw data, evidence of success. Mohawk Carpets has brought many innovations to the flooring industry. The organization has a reputation for leading the industry in technology and quality within the flooring business.In 1997, Mohawk purchase a large ceramic tile company from Dallas Texas named Dal tile to compete in the entire flooring industry. Since the purchase Mohawk Carpets became the largest flooring manufacture in the United States through technology and innovation, design and creativity, such as self-design programs on line which allows homeowners to put in a DVD and use there creat iveness and build the rooms they want resurfaces. This innovation gave Mohawk Carpet customers the ability to make decisions from home and not feel pressured while at the floor shop.Furthermore, the customers would know exactly what they want when they purchase the flooring products. Or at least have the knowledge of what questions to ask. These three facets play critical roles in organizational objectives, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s trends regarding business implications; companies must have an idea and be able to implement it for the success of such company. These ideas are crucial to keep an aggressive margin or stay firm against the competing businesses.Most all companies will hire an employee with creative ideas that would give the business an advantage in the trade it is in. References Contrast Innovation, Design, and Creativity Paper. StudyMode. com. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www. studymode. com/essays/Contrast-Innovation-Design-And-Creativty-Paper-486741. html Von Stamm, B. (2008). Managing innovation, design, and creativity 2nd ed. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from www. ecampus. phoenix. edu
Pradeshchildhood is the golden period of man's life. at this stage children need love and care for their growth and development. however,the tragic irony of indian society life is the employment of about 10 million children in unhealthy,hazardous and dangerous trades and industries. bare footed ,lean and thin children of tender age have to work in inhuman conditions for 10 to 15 hours a day which may include dhabas,brick kilns,small factories and cottage industries. ven small children are seen selling newspapers and other articles on the road which may be a risk to their lives. the child workers are generally ill fed and treated like bonded labourers. they are often beaten at the slightest excuse and even underpaid. in south india,thousands of children work in fire crackers and match factories. many of them get killed in accidents and fires. in uttar pradesh lakhs of children are employed in the carpet industry. in this industry,children have to work in inhuman conditions. he main re ason that compels many poor parents to send their children to work is poverty. the government admits thereal solution lies in the complete elimination of child labour.though the government has enforced many measures but these measures are effective only as long as their are facilities for the parents of such children to send them to school. it is a shame that india has the distinction of employing the largest number of children in most inhospitable and inhuman surroundings. his evil practice should be stopped by enforcing the child labour act with all strictness and punishing the defaulters. efforts of the part of general public and non gvernment organisations can help to tackle this problem. we should be aware of the problems of such deprived and exploited children in our society. we hope in the future that the children are not employed in our country and instead send to school for education,so that they can be sensible citizens.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Should there be any liability for Omission in criminal Law and if so, how much it should be extended and Why Penalties for Omiss - Dissertation Example In some jurisdictions, the penalty involves depriving the person of his life. Because the punitive nature of criminal laws invades upon a personsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights, the nature of the offences must be such that a harm had been inflicted upon another by the deeds of the accused, which he had clearly intended, in order to justify the harshness of the punishment. These two elements Ã¢â¬â the offensive act and the malicious intention to inflict harm Ã¢â¬â must therefore be evident. However, where the offence done had been an omission to perform a deed, then the moral question arises as to whether the absence of an act would justify the imposition of punishment. This is the crux of the debate on criminal liability attached to omissions. This study explores the nature of omissions and the reason why certain types of omissions, and not others, would be worthy of sanction. Since omissions are construed as failure to perform a duty, the types and sources of duties are also examined to gain insight into the type of harm inflicted by the omission. The study delved into the philosophical arguments and set of attributes upon which to base an assessment of whether criminal liability should be attached to omissions. ... SIONS IN CRIMINAL LAW 12 2.1 Elements of a crime 12 2.2 Definition of Ã¢â¬ËomissionÃ¢â¬â¢ 12 2.3 Distinguishing acts from omissions 13 2.4 Omissions as a source of liability 14 Chapter 3: SOURCES OF DUTY AS BASIS OF OMISSIONS 18 3.1 Liability for omissions under the common law 18 3.2 Statutes that impose a duty to act 19 3.3 Failure to prevent or report criminal conduct 19 3.4 Duty arising from special relationships 20 3.5 Duty to avert a danger that was created by defendant 27 3.5 Failure to provide medical treatment 28 Chapter 4: TYPES OF SOURCES OF DUTIES 33 4.1 First type: voluntary assumption of duty 33 4.2 Second type: voluntary performance of an act that incurs a duty 34 4.3 Third type: justification without voluntariness 35 Chapter 5: SPECIAL ISSUES IN OMISSIONS 38 5.1 Corporate manslaughter by omission: omissions by police officers 38 5.2 Liability for omissions in international criminal law 43 Chapter 6: ANALYSIS 45 6.1 The central debate on attaching liabilities to omi ssions 45 6.2 The Act-Omission Paradox 48 6.3 Summary 50 Chapter 7: CONCLUSION 53 Bibliography 56 Table of Cases Airedale National Health Service Trust v Bland  AC 789, All ER 821 Director of Publi Prosecutions v Santa-Bermudez, EWHC 2908  (Admin). Fagan v Metropolitan Police Commissioner  1 QB 439,  3 All ER 442, [ 1968] 3 WLR 1120, DC LennardÃ¢â¬â¢s Carrying Co., Ltd. v Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd.  AC 705. R v Adomako,  HL R v Chattaway  17 Cr App R 7 R v Gibbins & Proctor,  13 Cr App R 134. R v Instan,  1QB 450 R v Khan,  Crim LR 830 R v Lowe,  QB 702 R v Stone & Dobinson,  QB 354. R v Miller  ] UKHL 6, 2 AC 161 R v Senior  1 QB 283 R v Yuthiwattana (1984) 80 Cr App R 55 Re B (A Minor) (Wardship: Medical Treatment)
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Internship report - Essay Example During this meeting, the member organizations assess the general thrust of their actions, set the priorities and decide of their joint strategy for the coming 3 years, notably by electing the International Board. The International Board is comprised of 22 elected members (a president, treasurer, 15 vice-presidents, and 5 secretaries general) representing all regions of the world. This International Board defines specific strategies to implement the thematic and regional priorities adopted by the Congress. It also meets 3 times a year to discuss the FIDH's political and strategic orientation and to approve the budget. The Executive Board is composed of the President, the Treasurer and 5 secretaries General. It is responsible for the management of the FIDH on a daily basis and convenes once a month to take decision on current concerns and request submitted by member organizations. The International Secretariat, based in Paris, employs 30 permanent staff members who carry out various du ties including working at the headquarters, acting as a permanent delegation before IGOs (intergovernmental organizations) and working in regional offices. It implements decisions taken by the International and Executive boards in conjunction with the member organizations. ... The International Secretariat, Observatory and Specialist Desks. The International Secretariat is divided into regions (Africa Desk, Americas Desk, Asia Desk, Eastern Europe & Central Asia Desk, North Africa & Middle East desk) and is responsible for setting priorities. Since 2009, the FIDH singled out certain areas of prime concern, for which it has determined action priorities. These include: protection for human rights defenders, accountability, respect for human rights in the context of globalization, defense of human rights, and respect for human rights in the context of counter-terrorism. The thematic division of the International Secretariat reflects the following action priorities: Globalization & Human Rights Desk, Women's & Migrants Rights Desk, International Justice Desk, Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defender (hereinafter "The Observatory"). The Observatory (a joint program with the World Organization Against Torture) seeks the implementation of the UN De claration on Human Rights Defenders and campaigns for the adoption of new mechanisms aimed at reinforcing their protection and security. It also provides emergency protection to human rights defenders on the ground under the form of material assistance, trial observation missions, media coverage, and urgent intervention. The International Justice Desk's mandate is to tackle the issue of impunity for those who carry out human rights abuses, and to make such individuals and groups accountable for their crimes against humanity. It does so by providing legal and judicial support to victims of international crimes by initiating or participating in litigation before national, regional and international courts. The fight against impunity is one of the raisons dÃ¢â¬â¢etre
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Choose one of the 5 questions - Essay Example The purpose of this research paper is to summarize the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic plan for the next three to five years. In discussing, this document will describe the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall business strategy and IT department strategic plan in ensuring that it align with the business priorities and financial justifications. Further, the researcher will be looking at some of the current strategic issues the company is facing. Business Strategy and Capabilities Medtronic is a global company whose headquarter is located in Minneapolis Minnesota. Historically, the company started developing their facilities in 1967 when the first service center was created in AmsterdamÃ¢â¬â¢s Schipohl followed by Kerkrade located in Netherlands. Today, the company has expanded so much that there are facilities all over in the world. It is important to understand how the company has been progressing for the past years and the main challenges that need to be met to achieve their strategic plan. Accord ing to Medtronic, Inc, for the past five years, the company has shown a remarkable growth in sales and revenue (Ford, 2013 B). Despite the noted progress, the company has identified a number of challenges that needed to be solved. ... In this case, the IT cost drivers should be considered when establishing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies and objectives as discussed in the following section. Establishing Priorities Studies show that, Medtronic IT department provides the company with excellent products and services across the globe (Michelson, 2013). To fully succeed in the competitive world, IT departments needs to understand the functional team required and how they can utilize their services to solve the challenges identified. For instance, the IT department needs to develop software that tracks the clinical trial data; the company needs to look into China or India since these countries have a high number of graduatesÃ¢â¬â¢ students each year who are competent and experienced and they would cost the company one quarter of the salaries they would earn in the United States (DeRosa, 2013). Furthermore, this report makes the following suggestion, for the IT department, as a means of solving their challenges. First, the department needs to create a strong IT team that would support and implement the goals and objectives set by the strategy team. There is a need to have a team that would conduct analysis that would enhance positive growth in the company and ensure that there is a small group of IT staff that facilitate daily activities (Oppenheimer, 2013). The IT standardization would help the Company to lower costs and provide opportunities to innovate new products. Overall, the IT departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s information of the business world would help the company achieve its missions and values. Background Medtronic is headquartered in Minneapolis and was founded in the year 1949. It is an international supplier of
Friday, July 26, 2019
The Man with Head of Blue Hortensias - Essay Example The paper "The Man with Head of Blue Hortensias" will be the formal analysis of the two famous paintings. Gazing at the painting and then taking notes on what is observed can be the best strategy to achieve this. The Man with Head of Blue Hortensias is a painting done by Salvador Dali, a prominent Spanish surrealist artist. He had a range of art work that included photography, statuettes, cooperation with other artists, and paintings. Salvador was recognized for his extraordinary art work. Many accredit his artistic skills to the inspiration he got from the masters of rebirth. This paper will look at the painting depth, iconography, and color. In the Painting Depth, The Man with Head of Blue Hortensias, Salvador Dali tries to create depth in a number of ways. First, the male stature is perceived to be seating on a small rock near other large ones with his head bent or seating in a vertical position, depending on the position one is viewing the painting. The use of slightly bright col ors makes the rocks and the male stature appear close. In addition, there are dark clouds in the sky. The use of darker colors helps to make some rocks and the clouds appear to be far away. There seems to be a pathway separating the towering rocks on the left and where the male shape is seated. It appears close due to the slightly brighter color used. The rocks that have been painted in blue appear further away than those painted in brown. This goes a long way in depicting depth in the painting.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Consumption Patterns - Research Paper Example The consumers market is made of product, price, place and promotion all surrounded by economic, political, cultural, demographic and technological factors. The buyer may be influenced by knowledge, lifestyle patterns, perspectives, taste, character and motivational factors in buying the product. Prior to buying the same product, one may decide to search information about it from various sources, one may look for an alternative product, recognize a problem with the product or decide to buy it later. Purchasing the product can depend on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individual taste, brand recognition, dealer, amount of the product, or the time the product is being sold (Boone & Kurtz 287). In the United States, various types of consumer behavior exist among different parts of the country. America has been inhabited by many types of cultures over the years. This immigration has not only formed an outstanding culture but also created various subcultures or ethnic groups within the whole of America. Thes e groups have the same religion, beliefs, heritage and experiences that distinguish them from other members of the society. African Americans and Asian Americans are an example of such groups and compose of around a third of the US population. Hence, their similarities contribute to possession of the same consumption patterns (Hoyer & Falcnnis 323). A minority of the ethnic groups exhibit different behavioral patterns with each group having specific preferences in food, clothing, music, and cosmetics such as skin and hair care products among others. American consumers for instance demonstrate a desire to embrace new fashions as well as frequent shopping compared to others. Media also affects consumption patterns. Some media exist for a specific ethnic group or many subgroups. Hence, it may decide to use the ethnic language to conduct its advertising and promotional campaigns to reach the target audience. Religion brings with it values, and beliefs about various issues such as unders tanding of sex, family life customs, norms and morality. What is consumed is guided by religion, a key concern that should guide marketers in product distribution. Consumers shopping behavior is largely influenced by their different needs and preferences (Meisis & Tait, 123). African Americans African Americans display a large and widespread group that is composed of many subgroups with regard to regions, academic and profession. According to reports, almost 30% of the population possesses 50,000 dollars and above GDP while 46% stays at home majority of whom are single parent families where women are the main breadwinners. On the level of education, almost 15% are college graduates out of the 24% of the whole us population. In terms of consumer behavior, African Americans believe in freedom of life, dressing and presentation. They are very independent and value their culture, which they struggle to maintain as they are mostly less concerned with other groups way of life and do not e asily imitate. Their consumption patterns are grounded on the principles of individual presentation, importance of style and beauty. In relation to the above is the search for recognition and status revelation. In the attempt of describing their fashion statement, African Americans mostly buy the Ã¢â¬ËboyÃ¢â¬â¢s clothingÃ¢â¬â¢. This has made them become targets for commercial advertisers due
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Influenza Vaccine During Pregnancy - Research Paper Example after the first dose, whereas previously unvaccinated children below 9 years were recommended with two doses of vaccine, the priming dose as well as the booster dose. The adverse reaction observed in these individuals involves soreness, fever, malaise and Guillian- Barre Syndrome (GBS) (1/100,000) recipients, other adverse drug reports encompass nasal congestion, headache, myalgias or fever (Stinhoff et al, 2012). Pregnancy is a condition that affects immune system to a greater extent as a result woman becomes prone to the health hazards caused by the flu or other complicated condition such as pneumonia or respiratory distress. Further, these conditions may culminate into premature labor or delivery of a preterm baby. Prevention of flu is therefore highly imperative. Vaccination as a preventive measure is a way to protect the fetus, infant stage. Childhood flu vaccines can be provided at or after 6 months of age. However, vaccination during the pregnancy results in the formation of a ntibodies which are passed on to the developing fetus and hence a passive protection or immunity is provided to the fetus. This flu vaccine is prepared from the inactivated virus while the nasal spray is prepared from the live virus which is contraindicated during pregnancy (Ayoub & Yazbak, 2006). Symptoms of Influenza Symptoms of influenza involve fever, myalgia, malaise, headache, fatigue, cough, sore throat, rhinitis etc. Such conditions could be assessed by performing viral culture and testing for the presence of viral antigen. Influenza virus possesses airborne transmission and person to person contact. The virus possesses an incubation period of two days and there is an abrupt onset of these symptoms. Observations reveal that influenza is accompanied by the complications like... Influenza spreads potentially in the community and is capable of causing spread and intensity of illness of the patient. The virus is capable of changing its antigenic forms from 1918 to 2009. Human is the indirect host and is known that pig serves as a host for human as well as avian species. Its transmission is through droplet nuclei as well as body discharges. The virus invades the respiratory epithelium after the incubation duration of 1-7 days. A damage to epithelium we followed by the immune response. Characters displayed by the patients encompass fever, cough, sore throat, diarrhea, vomiting followed by hospitalization. Vaccination against the devastating disease influenza is highly essential to prevent the development of complications, especially pneumonia in children. During pregnancy the immunity provided to the developing fetus is passive, it can prevent the fetus from influenza. Reports of teratogenic as well as carcinogenic implications of the condition have been observe d. Although with research studies the success rate has augmented still a lot of controversies regarding the influenza vaccine are gaining prevalence. On one hand, the reports highlight the positive consequences of the influenza vaccine in preventing the disease condition while on the other hand there are reported the incidence to display the teratogenic as well as the carcinogenic impact of the influenza vaccine. Dreaded diseases like pH1N1 could be combated due to the administration of pH1N1 vaccination.
Global E-commerce - Essay Example The smallest unit of Bitcoin is Satoshi wherein 100 million Satoshi are there in 1 Bitcoin. The supply of Bitcoin has the limit of 21 million which is equal to 2100 trillion Satoshi. The current supply is 57% of the total which is equivalent 12 million Bitcoins. The public history with regards to transactions is experiencing upgrades at a continuous rate and also verified by the miners who can gather new transactions in different blocks and attach these blocks at the end of the chain called the block chain. Every single movement of the Satoshi is been tracked right from the first owner to the present owner. This helps in preventing fraud as the customer is aware of the number of Bitcoins he or she wants to spend on a particular transaction. Bitcoin as a medium of exchange is different from the transactions done in other exchanges. Bitcoin gained popularity among the companies that were involved with the facilities of Bitcoin ecosystem. In addition, Bitcoin has provided different soft ware like Bitpay to the merchants and has also absorbed FX volatility risk by giving a guarantee towards a successful transaction undertaken at the right exchange rates and also in making bank payments. From 2013, the company started making significant developments and changes to the start up so as to improve the process and also make it more users friendly for the customers for easy transactions. This report is an exclusive study about the importance of ecommerce and how it helps in creating a good business for the company especially in creating a good brand image. The way ecommerce is done using different platforms and how it benefits both the company and the customers can be seen in a wide and descriptive manner. The importance of ecommerce and the performance of ecommerce for Bitcoin will be analysed in comparison with FOREX.com which is a global leader in foreign exchange and provides contract for different individuals who makes transactions while trading
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Maltese Falcon - Movie Review Example It also had a choice of setting, which was an urban landscape. This film is not only renowned for its long-term popularity, but also its considerable contribution in either changing or inaugurating key aspects of the film industry. Like the Film Noir by Paul Schrader, Maltase Falcon also presents a darker view of life. This contributed to a change in the film industry since most of the previous films majorly concentrated on human despair, failure and depravity. Maltase Falcon and Film Noir both share some common themes like dark, tormented obsessions and sexual divergence (Shrader 57). For instance, both the films strongly advocates for gender equality, as they perceive men as weak and women as powerful. Ã¢â¬Å"Black widowÃ¢â¬ is preselected as a powerful woman as she seduced, exploited and killed her partners (Shrader 59). The film has a happy conclusion to the audience because Sam who has since been frustrated because of his color and personality finally becomes a hero and achieves his existential identity in spite of all the shortcomings in his
Monday, July 22, 2019
How Media Affects Society Essay How The Media Affects Society The media is undoubtedly a significant and influential aspect in modern day society. As a means of communication in a world very much advanced in technology, the media touches all types of people through various forms such as the radio, newspapers, televisions etc. The question remains: what information is left unbiased and untarnished? The people within society must sort through the many bits of information fed to them and unfortunately, in most cases, all bits of media is taken as the whole truth. The ways in which media impacts society to a great extent are through the facts it chooses to reveal, as recently seen in the case of the Tamil war in Sri Lanka. The tone in which it is presented such as the recently reported cases of Tamil protest on the streets of downtown Toronto and finally in the manner it chooses to target certain audiences, such as the case of Victoria George-Pazzano in Mexico. The media affects society through the facts it chooses to reveal. The media can choose to mention certain things and not to mention certain things. As seen in the recent Tamil war in Sri Lanka all mainstream media outlets were banned from broadcasting out of the country. The media then proceeded not to broadcast any of it, leaving people unaware of it on a global scale, until the Tamils outside of Sri Lanka began to protest and make other countries aware of the situation. The media chose not to reveal this information and if it was not for the protest and marches held around the world it is possible, that society could have never known that genocide was being used against the Tamil Tigers. Society needs the media to be informed on the events happening around the world, but sometimes the media may not choose to show us what is exactly going on. This can result in society not knowing how to react to what is happening in other parts of the world. Just as important as the facts the media chooses to reveal, the tone and manner in which the media presents these facts plays a large role on societys take on events. The tone in which the media presents the facts in can be hostile, neutral or in favour. The tone can affect societys view on the situation, resulting in either a positive or negative reaction. As seen on May 10th when thousands of Tamils met on Torontos Gardiner Expressway, for almost 4 hours shutting down a key artery in the citys road network. If the media had said, Ã¢â¬Å"The Tamil protesters are keeping Torontonians hostage in their own cityÃ¢â¬ vs Ã¢â¬Å"The Tamil protesters are bravely doing what needs to be done to save their familiesÃ¢â¬ . This could have resulted in Toronto turning against the Tamil community and possibly resulting in hate crimes, but instead the tone of the media was in favour of the protesters. Which has resulted in a positive reaction from Toronto and the Canadian government. The tone in which the facts are presented by the media, can easily change the point of view of the consumer, and can have either a positive or negative reaction regardless of the truth behind the facts. Lastly, the media uses its voice to target certain audiences for certain reactions. Who can the media target? In the case of Victoria George-Pazzano, a 29 year old woman who suffered a severe asthma attack while on vacation in Mexico became critically ill. Victorias family pleaded to the Canadian government and Ontario hospitals to bring her home,but were continuously told that there were no beds and doctors available to treat in all of Ontario. The family of Victoria then pleaded there case to the media, who in return targeted the government officials and found out that either the hospitals or the officials were lying to Victorias family because there were more than 20 beds available at the time. Because the media targeted the government with the right tone and direction of attention, the heat was put on the government for action because all of the attention was affecting there reputation. Without the media Attention, Victoria George-Pazzano would have died in a hospital bed in Cancun Mexico because the government of Canada pushed her aside. With these three weapons at the medias disposal, namely the facts it chooses to reveal, the perspective it chooses to take and the people it wishes to target. The media holds a great deal of power and influence over society. Of course, it may be for a positive effect or a negative one. Would one rather live in fear of all the rapes, assaults, robberies and murders that are reported or live happy, not knowing about every crime that takes place? That is another debate altogether. But, one thing is for certain: the people should not live blindly at the word and mercy of the media or another. There should always be room for doubt, speculation and of course ones own opinions. Although the media may carry a great influence over society, each person is entitled to think for oneself.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
KFC and McDonalds: Western Country And China This chapter describes the background of the two typical western fast food companies in china, which are KFC and McDonald. It also provides research questions along with the purpose of the thesis and corresponding primary and secondary research methodologies. In addition, there is a brief introduction of the theoretical Frameworks used thoroughly within the thesis. Background The KFC and McDonalds are the two major entities operating in Chinese market in western fast food industry. McDonalds is one of the famous brands of restaurant in the world, owning more than 30000 outlets in 120 counties, generating US$ 24.075 billion revenue in 2010 while KFC has more than 10000 stores in 80 countries with the US$ 520.3 million revenue in 2007 (en.wikipedia.org).Howbeit, McDonalds trails behind its competitor KFC in china, although in other countries, such as USA, UK, the business of McDonalds is more successful than that of KFC. McDonald was founded by Ray Kroc in 1955 in the United States. On October 8, 1990, the first McDonalds restaurant in China opened in Shenzhen. On April 1992, Wangfujing outlet in Beijing was opened, which was the worlds largest area of McDonalds restaurants. At the same day, the total income was over a million RMB. At present, McDonalds only has approximate 200 outlets. In addition, the numbers of McDonalds delivery service outlets are more than 480. There are more than 1,000 dessert stations, more than 280 wheat coffee shops, and more than 1,000 24 hour restaurants. In 2012, McDonalds in Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, will open online order services to expand its business scale in E-business market. For KFC, since 1987, when its first outlet opened in Beijing, china, 24 years passed. During these years, KFC china always dedicates to create new fast-food concept for China Market and has been trying to explore the most attentive service to Chinese consumers (Bell and Shelman, 2011.P3). Till 2012, KFC China has opened 3200 outlets in more than 650 cities and town. It is the largest and fastest growing fast chain company. In China, KFC plays a much more dominate role than that of McDonalds. In July 1987 the first KFC outlet opened in Beijing which is regarded as the first step into Chinese fast food industry. Since then, KFC has achieved the leading position in fast food industry in china, which has alr eady formed its unique cooking style, especially tailoring to the tastes of specific regions within China. Research questions and aim The specific objectives that are researched in this thesis are: Comparing difference market strategy KFC and McDonald used to improve their market position in Chinese fast food market. The analysis of cross-cultural management strategy adopted in KFC and McDonald The challenges that KFC and McDonald will encounter in China in the future. Our aim is to research and analyze about the key factors for foreign fast food companies running successful business in China. We want to find out what changes western fast food companies should make in order to achieve the sustainable growth. . Contribution: From the result of this case-study the organization will be able to identify the root cause of their successful business and also reveal their potential weak point. By using our result, they can improve their further overall business strategy. Research methodologies To achieve the target of doing deep analysis between KFC and McDonalds s business strategy, the primary methodology chosen is a mixed-method approach (Bryman, 2004). The qualitative research method will be introduced into this case study. By doing so, a series of random selected questions will form a questionnaire. The answer of each of the questions will determine each consumers attitude toward each well designed topic relating to their reaction to various business strategy adopted by KFC and McDonald. The secondary research methodology is applied to gather the evidence from other aspects and sources (Bryman and Bell, 2007, P28). One part of these materials include KFC and McDonalds annual report, revenue report that will reflect and reveal their finical positions in the Chinese market so as to determine whether their current business strategy generate a positive impact based on the reaction from the consumers. Whats more, the press and journals published in China, for example, Chin a Daily, 21 century, will also be considered for the reference. For those collect data, a statistics analytic method will be carried to conclude what aspects KFC and McDonald should improve to increase their marketing margin in Chinese Market from consumers perspective. Disposition Chapter 2: Introduce the Theoretical Frameworks, which are composed of cross-culture and 4P marketing strategy. The discussion is divided into two parts. At first, the components of culture which could form the key elements of cross culture strategy such as the different values, languages and customer behaviors will be chosen and they are combined with the analysis of 4P marketing strategy to illustrate how cross-culture strategy interacts with 4P marketing strategy and vice-versus. Secondly, illustrate 4P marketing strategy individually. In addition, we present different views of the relationship between society structure and consumer behavior such as service quality, customer expectations, perceived service quality and the relationship between customer expectations, perceptions and satisfaction in different countries. Finally we describe 4P marketing strategy that is used for analyzing the result and its relationship with cross-culture strategy. Chapter 3: This chapter describes the methods that were used for making the survey. The questionnaire structure as well as the method for choosing the sample of sources to support the evidence is also described Chapter 4: The empirical material is presented. The analysis is based on the 4P Marketing strategy. Product Strategy, Price Strategy, Place Strategy and Promotion Strategy are discussed together with the example of KFC and McDonald. In addition, cross culture analysis is combined with 4P analysis in order to support the results that KFC and McDonald as western fast food company are performing well in Chinese market. Chapter 5: In this chapter we present conclusions for KFC and McDonald respectively. Then we compare the disadvantage and advantage of western fast food companies with traditional Chinese food restaurant and then provide recommendations for western fast food companies to improve. In addition, we outline what aspects could be enhanced in the further research and the limitation of our studies. Literature review (Theoretical framework): The theoretical framework of this study is based on a number of relevant theories that are discussed in this part. The model which authors constructed in this study integrates cross-culture and 4P marketing strategy. Cross-Culture Management The process of cross-cultural management, in general, is divided into two steps. Cultural analysis and evaluation are considered as the first step. For the second step, culture then is regarded as a resource that could be controlled through the effective integration in management level. In the study of cross-cultural management, how to analyze the culture is the key that could directly and effectively reflects the current achievement of cultural management within the enterprise. Hofstedes model is generally accepted as the most comprehensive framework of national cultures values which comprise the difference in performance of the managers and employees on the four dimensions of national culture: power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, uncertainty avoid index, masculine vs. feminine as the reference model to analyze the cultural differences. In addition, Kluckhohn and Strodbecks values orientations theory proposes that cultures differ in terms of how they approach the six basi c dimension which are relationship to nature, time orientation, views of human nature, activity orientation, Relationships among People and Views of Personal Space. Furthermore, there are some other cultural measurement theories, such as the Denisons model, which is a relatively newer and more detailed model, is used in order to understand the organizational culture of the Karun Oil Gas Production company. According to this model, organizational culture has four dimensions: involvement, consistency, adaptability and mission. Moreover, Kim S. Cameron and Robert E. Quinns competing values theory develops a series organizational culture assessment scale (Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument, OCAI) aiming to assess organizations current views and expectations through a questionnaire usually take 5-10 to complete. Culture Difference between western country and China: The purpose of the cross-cultural management is to create a not only accepted by the host country employees, but also conducive to the development of corporate culture in multinational company. Cross-cultural management is the core measure to resolve cross-cultural conflicts due to globalization. The culture is a double-edged sword. On one hand, cultural confliction will evitable happen within the corporation and the original corporate culture will face the challenge. On other hand, it will bring opportunities which can take full advantage of the international market and competition, therefore enhancing corporations competitive advantage. With regard to the cultural comparison between Chinese and western business management, hofstedes four-dimensional framework model is adopted. The four dimensions are power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, uncertainty avoid index and masculine vs. feminine. Based on Hofstedes analysis of the surveys from 53 countries or regions, the following table illustrates the major difference: Table 2-1 Comparison result of hofstedes four-dimensional framework Country Power distance Individualism Masculine Uncertainty avoid USA Low High High Low China High Low Low High Power distance: Power distance is the most typical feature of the national and cultural differences. The meaning of empowerment in each country is not exactly the same, thus there are also significant differences. Cross-cultural management consulting firm ITLM latest research results show that power distance indicators, China and the United States score is 80 and 40 (the world average is 55) at rank 5 and 40 among the 56 countries respectively. Such significant difference indicates that the staffs relatively paying more attention to pursuit power within Chinese company. In Chinese business management, the higher position the more power and the more positive the employees performance have. Comparing to the United States, individuals abilities, and actual performance is considered in the first place. Individualism / collectivism. In Hofstedes study, individualism index is used to measure societys tendency with regard to individualism and collectivism. Individuals in countries with a high level of the index value personal freedom and status, such as the United States, while individuals in countries with a low level of the index value harmony and conformity, such as China and Japan. According to Hofstedes study of 53 countries or regions, with regard to the individualism, the United States ranked first, while Hong Kong ranked 36, Taiwan was ranked 43 with score 91,25,17 respectively. From the score, it is obvious that there is a large discrepancy between individuals attitude to individualism and collectivism in different countries. As a matter of fact, the culture of the United States and China is highly different in various areas including values Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹orientation, the habits and thoughts. In China, people consider more about and pay more attention to the spirit of solidarity and collective strength while in the United States, the Americans emphasis the importance of freedom meaning that everyone needs control their own destiny, desire and ability of individuals should not be subject to the government, church or other organizations and individuals restrictions and interference, which is a core concept in American culture. Bread is everything is regarded as the most comprehensive conclusion of Chinese diet culture while the other countries may not follow the same rule. Different regions have different eating habits, even in the same country. Therefore, it is understandable that different countries have their own eating habits which are caused by regional, national and ethnic, cultural differences between countries. Western food has a rational diet concept, regardless of the colour of the food, flavour and shape balanced diet, nutrition must be ensured. The food is always viewed from the aspect of nutrition therefore does not have excessive pursuit of the taste. However, Chinese has an emotional diet concept always believing diet as a significant part of life, which cannot be ignored. First, Chinese tries all the way to pursuit the taste of the food by combing the flavour during the cooking, the flavour after heating and the flavour of the ingredients, as well as the flavour of spices altogether. Secondly, the way of dining is the most obvious difference between the Chinese and Western food culture meanwhile it demonstrates how Chinese culture effluences the diet. In dinner party, Chinese people usually shares dishes on the table. Hosts greet and encourage everyone to work together to eliminate all dishes and also every guest will strongly desire to become the first one who pays the final bill. All of above acts emphasize cooperation. Westerners believe the eating habits are varied by person thus each guest orders their own meals and there is no need for the host to consider the tastes and preferences of others and when party finishes, each guests pay what have been ordered from menu by themselves. In summary, the major differences between Chinese and Western cult ures cannot be ignored and should be seriously taken into consideration in international enterprises when implementing the business strategy in global market. 1. Cultural innovation strategies Cultural innovation strategy provides effective ways and various channels for the parent company to integrate the local culture of the foreign subsidiary branch into its main stream corporate culture in order to promote mutual understanding, adaptation as the basis for the management of the foreign branch. During the process of cultural integration, localization strategy is a guide for cultural innovation, which does not only retain the parent companys original corporate culture characteristics and also is able to adapt to the local cultural environment. Western Fast Food Company, for instance, the integration process for Chinese culture in KFC experiences three stages, which are product culture, brand culture, and corporate culture. Product culture: KFC China has always been following the high quality standard required by its parent company, such as quantization process, the cooking process including the tools that are used for combining the raw materials as well as the cooking temperature and cooking time through quantified production process to ensure product quality. Furthermore, Because of the correct understanding of the Chinese culture, KFC is able to reasonably develop localized products suitable for Chinese tastes, accepted by Chinese people to a large extent. KFC China devotes to the product development, including the taste expansion in existing product and also new product innovation. In order to change the impression, which are limited products and monotonous taste, Chinese people towards to western food; it specially develops spicy flavour suitable for north China market and also introduces new products for whole china market, such as soup and Chinese-style breakfast. Brand Culture Brand culture refers to a specific brand name or mark, or a combination of these two elements. It represents the emotional cognitive, cultural traditions and image of the personality that are conducive to consumers to identify and distinguish the particular sellers of products or services. 1. Create a standardized Brand image KFC launches the CHAMPS champion plan that is standardized services in the global market, successful initiatives to create a brand strategy. Its specific contents include: C-cleanliness (to keep clean and beautiful restaurant); H-Hospitality (sincere and friendly reception); A-Accuracy (to ensure the accuracy of supply); M-Maintenance (maintain excellent equipment); P-product Quality (adhere to the high quality and stable products); S-SPEED (pay attention to the fast and quick service). Such plan has been conscientiously implemented in every restaurant in the world, and all KFC All employees must strictly enforce the uniform standard. 2. Build brand affinity. KFCs slogan of In China, as China becomes and KFC integrates family , love emotional world into product advertisement as its unique characteristics to create a new image of the brand to adapt to the emotional culture in the Chinese diet culture, thus to some extent, it improves Chinese impression on the fast meal, then gradually, KFC restaurants are also be considered as the place where family or friends party usually takes place. 3. High degree of social responsibility KFC is enthusiastic in public welfare and actively assist the vulnerable groups, in particular, devotes to Chinese children and young peoples education. According to the statistics, it shows that in nearly 10 years, KFCs direct and indirect contribution to the public welfare has reached more than 6500 million. Kendall China Youth Development Foundation in September 2002 set up a total of 38 million Chinese Yuan program China KFC dawn Fund aiming to provide long-term funding for poor college students with good academic performance in school. Currently, the fund has been implemented in 42 colleges and universities across the country, nearly 860 students have received assistance. The China KFC dawn Fund is one of the largest foundation program since the implementation of the Hope Project to aid the poor college student by China Youth Development Foundation. KFCs social activities does not only establish a good brand image, but also exerts a subtle influence on their own potential consum ers and employees. What KFC does match an old Chinese saying goes: Never forget a generous act and grasp every opportunity to return the hospitality that youve received. Corporate culture: KFC China realizes that Human Resource is the most significant strategic resources and the importance of the establishment of people-oriented corporate culture. 1. The human resource localization: KFC China make efforts to train promote local staff because they are familiar with national policies and have a depth understanding of the local competitive environment and market characteristics. Of all 16 market segments in KFC China, 8 local leadership teams with extensive industry experience are formed in order to make the correct judgments within the shortest time. At the same time, it can also reduce the communication barriers between cultural differences. 2. Staff training Annually, KFC china makes investment covering various areas in order to strengthen employees expertise and support employees personality development from the restaurant waiter, restaurant manager to top corporate management personnel. Furthermore, Management staff conducts a series of management training while for the junior staff, the training will last three hours on every 2 weeks include on-the-job training and examination. When there is new product to be launched, all junior staffs are required to participate a relative short period training in order to raise the profession quality of staff to adapt to the change of existing products. In addition, the aim of training restaurant managers is to make sure them be familiar with all the operational processes in the local restaurant, from the introduction of products, inventory management, personnel management, crisis management, and quality control and labour costs, although the training process could potentially increase their variab le cost. Marketing Strategy Jerome McCarthy, professor at the University of Michigan, for the first time, introduces the 4P theory in his book basic marketing, including product (Product), price (Price), distribution (Place) and promotion (Promotion) four elements. Within the theory, product factors is the combination of performance, quality, colours, varieties, specifications, models, trademarks, packaging, services and other small factors. Price factors are composed of cost, price, price discounts, payment terms, and credit terms. Distribution factors includes the choice of marketing channel structure, mode of transport, storage location, wholesalers and brokers, as well as the retailers selection and control. Promotional factors contains advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations. Thus, 4P marketing mix theory instructs how companies should do, as what Philip Kotler has mentioned is if the company is to produce the appropriate product, set the appropriate price, the use of appropriate d istribution channels, and paved the appropriate promotional activities, the company will be successful. The marketing mix can be adjusted on a frequent basis, to meet the changing needs of the target group, and the other dynamics of the marketing environment. They are as follows: product, price, place, and promotion. Product is a tangible object, or an intangible service, that is mass-produced or manufactured on a large scale, with a specific volume of units. Intangible products are often service-based. Price is the amount a customer pays for the product. The business may increase or decrease the price of a product if other stores have the same product. Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet. Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements advertising, public relations, word of mouth and point of sale. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from cinema commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards. Public relations are the communications that are not directly paid for and include press releases, sponsorship deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trade fairs and events. Word-of-mouth is any apparently informal communication about the product by ordinary individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically engaged to create word-of-mouth momentum. Sales staff often plays an important role in word-of-mouth and Public Relations. Cross-culture and Choice of 4Ps When a firm enters into a new market, especially a foreign market, which strategies should be chosen is very important to managers. Focusing on this, Doole and Lowe discussed about the standardization and adaptation in their study. They mentioned that firms adopt a combination of standardization and adaptation of the various elements of the marketing management programs and processes by globalizing some elements and localizing others, and they thought the cultural factors are the balance between standardization and adaptation. Culture differences can be seen as the usage factors and legal factors. In their opinion, marketing objectives and strategies are more readily standardized than operational marketing decisions. Therefore, when firms enter into a new market which has a different cultural context, the market managers must think over the alternative strategies, such as the global strategy, multi-domestic strategies and so on. In this study authors suggest to choose the 4P marketin g strategy model help to analyze the effect of cross-culture. Mooij considered that the managers of transnational corporations should provide appropriate products according to the local consumer values and buying behaviors of a certain market. The product strategy owing to cultural factors, usage factors and legal factors. Hall described some countriesculture is high-context culture. He meant that in this kind of country, most of the information is shared by members of a society. In this kind of country, people often do the same things as others did, especially as those around them. For instance, to most families in China, members share the similar values with each other. In other words, China is a society with relatively high collectivism , and where people have a high sense of identity to the traditional culture and food. Moreover, according to Doole and Lowe, pricing decisions in international markets can be very complex. Many factors can influence the pricing strategy in different markets, including internal and external factors. From the l evel of company and product, factors such as corporate and marketing objectives, firm and product positioning, product range, life cycle, substitute, product differentiation and unique selling propositions, cost structure, manufacturing, experience effect and economics of scales will influence the pricing decision of a company. Market factors like consumersperceptions, expectations and ability to pay, need for product adaptation and market servicing, market structure, distribution channels, discounting pressures, market growth, competition objectives, strategies and strength can also affect the pricing strategy of a company. According to the Hofstedes culture dimension model, China ranked in a relatively high position in power distance. From the perspective of cross-culture, therefore, many people in China consider the relationship between the prices of consumer places and the personal appearance seriously. Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet. Similarly, place strategy can be influenced by both internal factors and external factors. For instance, internal ones like company size and product positioning are main factors influencing the place strategy. In addition, social-cultural factors such as local law and government policy, religion, language, customer buying behavior also affect this strategy obviously in different ways. When it comes to the promotion strategy, decisions in international markets are even more complicated than the pricing decisions, because promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the marketplace. It often includes several distinct elements, such as advertising, public relations, word of mouth and point of sale. Promotion activities play a role of introducing the product and service, motivating and leading the demand of the customers and also facilitating the products and services easily sold. When implementing the promotion strategy, the marketing managers of a transnational corporation should take many factors into consideration. Language, adaptation ability of customers, values, life style and attitudes, different kinds of customs and other culture factors of a certain nation are all very important which will influence different promotion activities. Methodology: This chapter consists of an introduction to the research approaches and strategies we chose and how to collect valuable data and analysis data to find the answer to research questions. The reliability and validity of our collected data also discussed below. Research Approach We have chosen to use both quantitative and qualitative research method. Bryman and Bell (2005) describes that a quantitative method means that data is collected with the aim to try theories. The difference between making a qualitative or quantitative study is that the qualitative study goes to the heart of the problem and has an inductive approach. The quantitative research design reaches a broader part of the problem and has a more deductive approach. Quantitative research focuses on measurement, causality, generalization and replication. Quantitative research is rather a lot of interpretation. With regard to qualitative approach, it is able to get a deeper understanding of how different cultures influence the marketing strategy in multinational companies. Using a qualitative methodology will let the researcher have the opportunity to be flexible in the research, and to get a clear and broad view about the cultural aspect (Jacobsen, 2002). The methodology will also develop the rese arch, test the theories and explain the researched phenomenon in a new way (Bryman, 2006). Data collection: When collecting the data, the researchers often used primary and secondary data to gather the empirical finding. Primary data is information that especially has been collected for a specific purpose from a primary source. According to the research purpose, data about marketing strategies in Chinese market need to be collected. Thus, the primary data in this paper has been gathered through the phone interviews and the employees for the questionnaire survey which was carried out in Beijing KFC branch. The following requirements were made clear to the subjects: Participators would be expected to read each statement carefully before ticking the choices Participators would be expected to tick the choices as realistically as possible according to what they would actually do in their real daily lives Secondary data is the data or information that has already been recorded and collected by others for other purposes (Cooper et al., 2005, p.315). Secondary data is often of good quality, and it can therefore be useful for another purpose than the primary reason. We can collect secondary data from the course books, article, newspaper papers, Internet Website and other publications. Interviews and Questionnaires: It is widely recommended to use interviews to collect information for evidence as a source (Cooper et al., 2005, p.378). We utilize two types of methods to collect the primary data. The first is survey research in which we use a questionnaire with an emphasis on fixed response categories and systematic sampling and loading procedures combined with statistical methods and quantitative measures (Ghauri, 2002, p.100). The second type is unstructured interviews in which the informant is given almost full liberty to discuss reactions, opinions and behavior on a particular issue. After some answers we decided to give the question about how and why to continue the dialogue. The questions and answers are often unstructured and are not systematically design beforehand (Ghauri, 2002, p.100-101). We decided to do the interviews by telephone with the Beijing KFCs Training manager and Finance manager. We also e-mailed the questionnaires to the managers for them to deliver them to the employees to answer. The telephone interview was tape recorded because audiotapes can provide a more accurate rendition of the interview. The managers questionnaire includes 31 questions that were made with information and theories from the marketing and cross-culture area. The questionnaire of employees includes 22 questionnaires according the theoretical framework provided by Hofstedes cultural dimensions theory and marketing mix 4P theory introduced by McCarthy. To find out the appropriate interviewees, we sent E-mail to KFC Beijing Br
The Iranian Revolution And Khomeini Ideas The Iranian Revolution, also called the Islamic Revolution took place in 1979. It marked events involving the demise of Irans monarchy by bringing down the US-backed Shah of Iran, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi. The revolution placed Ayotullah Rohullah Khomeini in control of Iran. Ayotullah Rohullah Khomeini was the leader of the revolution and changed Iran into in Islamic Republic. Imam Rohullah Al-Musavi Al-Khomeini, in short, Ayotullah Khomeini, was born on September 24, 1902. He belonged to a family that had religiously strong traditions. They resided in Khumayn, located in the west of Tehran. When Ayotullah Khomeni was nineteen years old he went to study religious science where his education under notable figures exposed him to religious traditions, political activism and learning. He excelled in a lot of subjects but mastered ethics and philosophy. Though he is widely known as a revolutionary leader with a remarkable success in the political field, initially he was famous as a writer an d a teacher residing in Qom. Qom had a status dignified learning center and rose as spiritual capital in Iran. His area of concern was devotional and mystical matters. But from spirituality and mysticism, he never meant social isolation and political inertness. Instead he advocated energetic natural expression on the socio-political frame. His life indicates that an Islamic revolution has its roots in spiritual and moral realm. During his early years in Qom, his activities were in contrast with the establishing Pahlavi state by Shah of Iran, Reza Khan. Reza Khan changed the monarchy in Iran into a totalitarian dictatorship. His major objective was to wipe out Islam as a cultural, political and social power. Imam Khomeini not only witnessed these efforts of Reza Khan directly but also got news regularly from cities like Tabriz, Mashhad and Isfahan. All this deeply affected him. In the later years Muhammad Reza, son of Reza Khan became the Shah of Iran and continued the exploitive agenda regarding religious institutions. Imam Khomeini touched the political field for the first time in 1941 when he gave a political public statement in his book Kashf al-Asrar. In 1962 Imam Khomeini became the leader of Qom. His aim became to fight back Shah at a time when not many dared to do so. He announced his support to religious institutions. For example he lent his support to students who were protesting against the permission to open liquor stores in the city. After that he moved towards matters of bigger significance. In October 1962 he united with the religious leaders throughout the country and vigorously protested against the law allowing non-Muslim males and females to participate in elections to local assemblies. This resulted in building an alliance of religious scholars that would stand for the fundamental rights. In 1963 he confronted the Shah, who was trying to propagate reforms in economic and socio-political life if Iran. These efforts by Shah were designated as White Revolution. The White Revolution was a deceiving program constituted on six points. The real aim was to restrain the growing clerical influence against Shah in Iran. Imam Khomeini made public a strong and hard declaration in which he denounced the Shah and his Western agenda. He accused the Shah of violating the constitution, spreading morally corrupt objectives and compliance with USA and Israel. The Shah successfully got the clauses of this revolution approved through a fake referendum on January 26, 1963. The measures taken under the flag of White Revolution were largely perceived by the Iranian society as a dictation by United States. The goal was to augment Shahs wealth and power and sustenance of US dominance. Imam Khomeini denounced the revolution and exposed the aims and objectives underlying it. He preached lectures from Fayziya Madrasa that had impact in the whole nation. On March 22, 1963 the Shah sent paratroopers who attacked Fayziya Madrasa resulting in the death of numerous students and rummage of madrasa. It didnt intimidate Imam Khomeini much. Instead it ignited an unprecedented struggle directed against the blunders and wrongdoings of the regime. The attack was perceived as a symbolic action showing the hostile attitude of the regime towards Islam and the ruthless expression towards Islamic institutions. After all these actions Imam Khomeini came out stronger. He kept denouncing the Shah and his regime. He cursed the Shah for his authoritarian nature. He called him a puppet of United States and criticized his growing association with Israel. On June 3, 1963 the afternoon of Ashoura (10th day of Muharram according to the Muslim calendar) he denounced the Shah by calling him a wretched miserable man and warned him to alter his ways otherwise people will celebrate the day he departs from Iran. He was arrested because of that speech on June 5, 1963. This led to major protests for three days throughout Iran. There was disgust among the public against the regime and a shocking uprising took place. In Qom, Shiraz, Isfahan, Mashhad, Tehran and many other cities well equipped army of Shah trained by United States was confronted by defenseless demonstrators. It is estimated that some 15,000 pro-Khomeini protesters were killed by the Shahs forces in these protests. This uprising acted as a fulc rum in the struggle against the regime. Imam Khomeini became a national leader. He became an aspiration to the whole nation to stand against the Shah and the foreign supporters backing up Shah. He provided a rational and logical Islamic ideology. He introduced a political road map guided by religious leadership rather than by the secular parties. The uprising was curbed but the mass public and religious scholars could not endure the detention of Imam Khomeini. Demonstration continued all over the country and several religious personalities pressed on Tehran for his release. On April 6, 1964 the government released him, issuing a statement that he has contracted to abstain from any activity of political nature as a condition for his liberation. This was later refuted by him. He carried on his condemnation of the Shah and his regime with more vitality. In October 1964, the Shah proved his submission to the US by granting legal immunity to the US personnel. This gave the US personnel the right to commit all offenses in the Iranian boundaries. It was evident now that the Shah was a puppet at the hands of United States. The Iranian Majlis approved this measure. On the very next day i.e. October 27, Imam Khomeini wrathfully denounced this and called it an outright attack on the independence and sovereignty of Iran. Imam Khomeini was now becoming a serious nuisance for the Shah and his foreign supporters. All efforts to intimidate Imam Khomeini into silence proved futile. Hence an attempt to destroy his strengthening influence was made by sending him to exile. Therefore, on November 4, 1964 Imam Khomeini was arrested and exiled to Turkey. He stayed in Ankara for a while and than moved to Bursa. The Shahs regime was pressurized to allow Imam Khomeini to a better place than Turkey. The permission was given on October 1965 and Imam Khomein i moved to Najaf, considered by the Shii sect as a shrine city in Iraq. He took residence in Najaf for the next thirteen years. On the other side, the Shahs regime set itself free from the pressure they were previously bearing and thought that the religious establishment of Najaf will overshadow Imam Khomeini. But they were wrong. Not only did Imam Khomeini created himself as a sound presence in Najaf but also kept maintaining his popularity and influence in Iran. His public statements concerning Iranian development were smuggled and circulated in the country. He addressed the Muslim world and his messages were distributed in Mecca several times. He was visited by prominent Iranian and Muslim religious figures from time to time during his years in exile. He was never forgotten by the people of Iran. His name and his cause lived in the Iranian people. He was an inspiration for numerous religious groups and scholars who carried on building the foundations previously laid by Imam Khomeini. Unaware by many foreign onlookers, an Islamic association of immense span and insight was formed. It was understood that Imam Khomeini would come up as a leader and guide the Islamic Revolution taking place in 1978-1979. Though he was physically absent but he lived in the hearts of the Iranian people and was an aspiration to them. On November 23, 1977 a tragic thing happened. Hajj Mustafa, Khomeinis elder son, died unexpectedly in Najaf. He was assassinated by SAVAR, a US-instituted security police of the Shah. Imam Khomeini faced this grief patiently. This tragedy provoked the Iranian public. People became rebellious and this rebel turned into a revolution. On January 8, 1978 a government statement came labeling Imam Khomeini as an agent working for foreign powers. This invited a public outrage. Protests broke out in Qom which resulted in a large number of casualties. These series of protests combined the whole country in the revolutionary passion and continued till the summer of 1978. Imam Khomeini kept encouraging the steadfastness of the people and boosted them to attain their goal i.e. the demise of monarchy building of an Islamic state. The Shahs regime made another attempt to bring down the revolution by requesting the Baathist government of Iraq to expel Imam Khomeini from their country. The Shah thought this would destroy his base of operation and the revolution will lose its leadership. Imam Khomeini was never satisfied with the governments that have been ruling Iraq. He considered Syria and Algeria as a good option but no Muslim country welcomed him to stay and carry on his political activity. In October 1978, Imam Khomeini went to France and took residence at Nauphle-le-Chateau, which is situated near Paris. The residence in France proved to be very beneficial for Imam Khomeini. The communication became easier, international media also jumped in and he was able to address to a global audience. In December 1978, the month of Muharram also came. Demonstrations on a large scale took place in Tehran and other major cities aiming to overthrow the monarchy and replacing it with an Islamic state under Imam Khomeini. The Shah touched the extremes of brutality. The streets were flowing with the blood of thousands of slaughtered demonstrators, the people held in jails were tortured and abused, and the wounded were massacred in the hospitals by the Shahs forces. United States, Israel and many foreign states supported this. It seemed like a holocaust but this time done by the Jews. Despite the unflinching US support the corrupt and homicidal rule of the Shah was taking its last breathes. A substitute administration was made under Shahpur Bakhtiar and finally, the Shah left Iran for good on January 16, 1979. The public come out on the streets full of joy and happiness. People celebrated their victory. On February 1, 1979 Imam Khomeini returned to Iran and was welcomed by millions of Iranians at the airport. Throughout the revolution Imam Khomeini showed characteristics of high values; Spirituality, self discipline determination, leadership, compassion, asceticism, erudition, sobriety, political ingenuity and hatred of imperialism. He was undoubtedly the teacher and director of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. In his lectures that were given in Najaf between January 21 and February 8, 1970, which were later combined under the title of Islamic Government (Hukumat-i-Islami) three key points come to surface. The need for founding Islamic socio-political institutions Obligation of religious personalities (the fuqaha)to construct and Islamic republic Islamic republic that takes self reform measures Imam Khomeini said in his lectures that a society cannot be reformed alone on an organization of laws. It is important that a power and an executor are present to ensure the law. That is why Allah Almighty not only provided an ordinance of law (sharia) but also gave a structure of government well supported by administrative and executive institutions. The last Messenger of Allah is a practical example of such a government. He executed the institutions in the Muslim society. The Prophet established the ordinance of law in Islam. This duty was later carried by the successors of the Prophet. It was the need that someone continues executing the laws and establishing the Islamic institutions in the society. It is very important that there is some executor of the social institutions and the law. Legislation if alone couldnt do much good for the well being of humans. The executor, known as, vali amr, is responsible for implementation of the law and the courts verdict. He said that the life of prophet is in itself a practical example of establishing an Islamic State. He said that the Prophet laid foundations of a government, implemented laws, established Islamic ordinances, and administered the society. He appointed governors, judges and also worked as a judge himself. He sent diplomats to different states, chiefs and kings, completed pacts and treatise, commanded the army in battles. In a nutshell, he performed all the functions required in a government. He appointed his successor himself. This showed the necessity of a stable working government even after Prophet Muhammad departs from the world. Imam Khomeini said that the ratification of Islamic law was not limited to the times of Prophet. The Islamic ordinances are permanent and hold practical value till the end of times. The Islamic system of government is not restricted to the old times. The taxation system, economic system, social system laid down by Islam holds its relevance till the end. A fully functioning government together with its administrative and executives bodies is compulsory. If the political system is repugnant to the Islamic teachings than such a system would result in tyranny, corruption, moral drain, anarchy and chaos. Imam Khomeini questioned the putting aside of Islamic laws to promote anarchy. He questioned the calling of Islamic Laws as old and impractical. Allah has not limited the legitimacy of his of the laws He sent to earth. Imam Khomeini hardly denounced those who believe that Islamic laws dont hold their validity anymore. Imam Khomeini criticized the western taxation system. He supported the Islamic system of through kharaj, zakat, khums and jizya. He said that those who do not support the Islamic system challenge the legitimacy and universality of Islam and the faith. Government was always considered a necessity during the time of Prophet and afterwards. Governments were made during the reign of Caliphs. Sharia provides us with sufficient proof regarding the need of a government in all times. Sharia is the embodiment of diverse laws covering all aspects of a society. The laws in this system are a complete guidance of to meeting the needs of all humans, dealing the neighbors, other citizens, races, relatives, children, marital and personal life, laws regarding peace and war, foreign policy, diplomatic relations with other nations, laws related to trade, agriculture, commercialization. It gives guidance about the constitution of marriage institution, the right procedure to contract it, the fostering of child in the womb, the responsibilities of the parents during the time the infant is nourishing and growing, the interaction of husband, wife, and the children. Islam offers a complete code of conduct for the humanity. It ensures virtue, morals and healthy economic and social relations. The ordinances and laws needed by man are all present in the Holy Quran and Sunnah. These laws will help in attaining happiness and making the state perfect. Imam Khomeini swore that the Quran has everything that a man needs. It is not possible to execute Allahs order without the formation of proper executive and administrative organs that would strengthen the establishing of a government. Imam Khomeini mentions some provisions to substantiate his argument. The taxation system introduced by Islam is not meant to feed the poor and needy only. They also build bases for establishing a grand government and bear the essential expenses for it. The example could be given of khums, which is a type of tax, and acts as a source of revenue for the treasury. It is believed that khums is levied on all natural resources, commercial and agriculture profits in an equal manner. It applied to everyone on equal terms as they have to pay one-fifth on their income that is surplus. This large income will serve the function of administering the Islamic republic and fulfilling its financial requirements. If this one fifth portion of the surplus income of Muslims is calculated, it will become evident that the imposing of such a tax is not for the reason of feeding the poor and hungry but for a larger cause i.e. fulfilling the financial requirements of the government institutions and its important bodies. Imam Khomeini emphasized on establishing a government bas ed on the Islamic taxation system which comprised of khums, jizya, zakat and kharaj. He said that the large budget provided by the income from khums, was for the reason of establishing a government that administered the Islamic domain. It was formed to fulfill the needs of people by providing the public with services related to health, defense, educational and economic welfare. Furthermore, Islam laid down principles for the compilation, safeguarding and disbursement of the income from khums. Any illegal take over or embezzlement of this income is strictly forbidden. The head of state and government members do not practice any privilege over a common inhabitant when it comes to public wealth and income. Another type of tax is jizya, has been made compulsory for ahl adh-dhimma, and kharaj is imposed on land that is of agricultural value. These two sources also add considerable amount of revenue. The forming of these taxes proves that it is necessary that a government and a ruler exist. It is the responsibility of the governor or ruler that taxes is imposed correctly on ahl adh-dhimma according to their financial ability and income. The ruler should also fix proper taxes on their livestock and agricultural land. Kharaj tax is also imposed on the land that is in the ownership of the Islamic republic. In order to implement these taxes laws should be established, institutions should be built, and administrative bodies should be working. Otherwise it would be impossible for such taxes to be carried out. The in charge of the state is responsible for carrying out these taxes honestly and aiming them for the larger good of the public. The rules relating the safeguard of the Islamic defense and order of the territory and the freedom of Islamic nation also calls for the establishment of a government. It is said in the Quran: Prepare against them, whatever force you can muster and horses tethered (Quran 8:60) This shows that a well equipped defensive Muslim force should always be ready and vigilant. It should be alert even during peace. Imam Khomeini said that if Muslims had acted on this verse a strong government would have been formed and preparations of a war would have been made beforehand. A small bunch of Jews would not have even thought to take over our lands and destroyed Masjid al-Aqsa. If the Muslims had fulfilled their responsibility of carrying out Gods orders and laws, and established a respectable and righteous government than all this would not have taken place. If the leaders of Muslims are true representatives of Gods laws than they would overcome all their differences and unite together as one. A bunch of Jews couldnt harm us then, even if they get all their support from US and other foreign countries. As it is said in the Quran, Prepare against them, whatever force you can muster this means that we should be well-prepared and strong and ever-ready against the oppression that the enemies will try to cause us. Unfortunately we are licking in preparedness, strength and unity and thats why we are suffering at the hands of foreign evils. There are a number of conditions of the law that are not possible to be imposed unless a government is established. The example could be given of blood money, which is used to support the deserving and physical penalties laid down by the law, which have to be supervised by the ruler of the Islamic state. These laws and ordinances remind us the necessity if a government and strong institutions that have the power which makes them capable to perform these functions in the best way. After the death of Prophet the Umayyads went against Ali ibn Abi Talib and started to cause instability in the Islamic state. They moved away from the formation of a government that has been ordered by God Almighty. They changed the basis of the entire government. The policies they introduced were in contradiction to Islamic laws and ordinances. The Abbasids and Umayyads pursued anit-Islamic administrative and political policies and established a government that was against Gods teachings. The government they established later on converted into a complete monarchy. Their government was just like the governments of Roman emperors, Egyptian pharaohs and Iranian kings. Imam Khomeini called them non-Islamic governments that have been carried on to the future. Both the law and logic tell us that such anti-Islamic and non-Islamic governments should not be permitted. The reasons are very clear. In a non-Islamic form of government the orders of Islamic politics couldnt be implemented. Imam Khomeini said that the non-Islamic forms of government are the system made by the infidels (kafir). It is the obligation of every Muslim to eradicate all the traces of such a system from their society and perish them. It is our responsibility to create a social atmosphere that ensures the education of individuals who have faith and virtue. But such an atmosphere is in total contradiction with the rule of the infidels and their illegal power. Imam Khomeini said that the corruption is Iran is the result of the kafir mode of government. The corruption has to be swept and the culprits should be caught and hanged. He related this corruption to the corruption of the pharaohs in Egypt. It is not possible for a faith-practicing, God-fearing and just Muslim to survi ve in such a socio-political situation. The condition leaves the individuals with two choices. Either he submits to the will of kufr and betrays God or he refuses to commit the acts that the kufr commands and stands against him to destroy the corrupt system. Being true Muslims we have no choice but to destroy the form of government that is full of corruption, tyranny, treachery, oppression and crimes. This is the obligation of every Muslim of the world, a duty he must accomplish to ensure the political Islamic revolution. The tyrannical and imperialist rulers have segregated the Islamic land. They have divided the Islamic umma into numerous segments and virtually created detached nations. The imperialists of Austria, Russia, Britain and others divided the great Ottoman Empire. This happened partly because of the incompetency and corruption of the rulers of the Ottoman. They took a wrong step y following the system of monarchy. The Ottoman Empire was a threat to the evil imperialists. They were afraid that righteous men will rise up and take control of the state and destroy the imperialism to its roots. Therefore after World War I the imperialists divided the Ottoman Empire into fifteen small states. The imperialists started controlling them with the help of their agents. Imam Khomeini said that if we want to unite the Muslim umma, if we want liberate the Islamic land form the claws of imperialists, if we want to overthrow the puppet governments than it is crucial that formation of a government that is in accordance with the Islamic laws and ordinance takes place. The establishment of such a government will safeguard the disciplined Muslim unity. He quotes the address of Fatimat az-Zahra: The Imamate exists for the sake of preserving order among the Muslims and replacing disunity with unity Imam Khomeini revealed the evil deeds of the imperialists by saying that the imperialists have appointed their political agents in the countries. They have imposed an economic system full of injustice. As result the people are divided into two distinct groups: oppressors and oppressed. The oppressed are deprived of the basic necessities of life while the oppressors enjoy the all the wealth through corruption and tyranny. The hungry oppressed people have tried to cut loose their chains from the cruelty of the overlords and their struggle has been going on till today. But the ruling class and imperialist government structures have hindered their way. It is our responsibility to rescue the deprived and oppressed. We should confront the oppressor. Imam Khomeini said that it is an obligation for Islamic scholars to thrive against the oppressors and let the not succeed in establishing a monopoly on the wealth resources. The Islamic scholars should fight for the masses and to save them from hunger and deprivation and stand against the oppressors usurping the wealth of the people. He quotes the following saying: I swear by Him Who causes the seed to open and create the souls of all living things that were it not for the presence of those who have come to swear allegiance to me, were it not for the obligation of the ruler-ship now imposed upon me by the availability of aid and support, and were it not for the pledge that God has taken form the scholars of Islam not to remain silent in the face of gluttony and plundering of the oppressors, on the one hand, and the harrowing hunger and deprivation of the of the oppressed on the other hand were it not for all of this, then I would abandon the reins of government and in no way seek it. You would see that this world of yours, with all of its position and rank, is less in my eyes than the moisture that comes from the sneeze of a goat. Imam Khomeini said that it is not the time to sit silent. The time has come to rise against the traitors, puppets of foreign imperialists, and tyrants who have the blood and sweat, wealth and income of the Muslims nationwide. They have snatched the prosperity from the Muslims. It is the responsibility of the scholars of Islam and all the Muslims to destroy this system that has enslaved us. We will overthrow the anti-Islamic governments to bring welfare to millions of Muslims by the formation of a government on the foundations of Islam. Imam Khomeini said that the rules and regulations laid down by Islam prevent the exploitation of the weak by the oppressors. If the anti-Islamic form of government prevails than the Islamic land will fall in the hands of the foreign imperialist powers. The people who rule Iran are useless. They are corrupt, tyrannical and incompetent. Therefore a revolution is necessary. An Islamic revolution is the only way to end this system of kufr. Imam Khomeini successfully preached these ideas in the nation of Iran and led to the Islamic revolution that resulted in breaking the chains of imperialist United States and Israel. The country fled into the streets to support his ideology, the righteous, faithful and Islamic ideology.